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The role of placenta in transmission of HIV infection from mother to child

Objective



THE AETIOLOGICAL AGENT OF AIDS, HUMAN IMMUNODEFIECEINCY VIRUS (HIV) IS TRANSMITTED FROM MOTHER TO A CHILD. TRANSMISSION RATES OF HIV VARY WIDELY AND SEVERAL MATERNAL FACTORS CAN INCREASE RISK OF INFECTION. THE NUMBER OF WOMEN INFECTED WITH HIVE IS INCREASING AND MAJORITY OF THESE ARE OF CHILD BEARING AGE. THERAPEUTIC AND PROPHYLACTIC INTERVENTIONS DESIGNED TO INTERRUPT TRANSMISSION OF HIV FROM AN INFECTED WOMAN TO HER NEW BORN ARE ESSENTIAL. AN UNDERSTANTDING OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF HIV INFECTION IN PREGNANT WOMAN AND INFANTS IS CRUCIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THESE. CONFLICTIN INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE WITH REGARD TO THE EFFECT OF HIV ON PREGNANCY OUTCOME. TRANSPLACENTAL PASSAGE OF HIV HAS BEEN DOCUMENTED TO OCCUR AS EARLY AS 8 WEEKS OF PREGANCY. LITTLE WORK HAS BEEN DONE WITH RESPECT TO THE PATHOGENESIS AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH EARLY TRANSMISSION ROLE OF PLACENTA IN PERINATAL TRANSMISSION, OR PLACENTAL DYSFUNCTION ASSOCIATED WITH HIV INFECION. HUMAN TROPHOBLAST CAN BE INFECTED WITH HIV IN VITRO AND THESE CELLS CAN SUSTAIN THE WHOLE VIRUS CYCLE. IT HAS ALSO BEEN SHOWN THAT HUMAN TROPHOBLAST PRODUCES INTERFERONS WHICH MAY INFLUENCE OUTCOME OF HIV INFECTION.
1. CHARACTERIZATION OF PLACENTAL CELL TYPES WITH RESPECT OF CD4 AND HIV/SIV INFECTION.
2. STUDY THE ROLE OF TROPHOBLAST INTERFERONS IN PLACENTA WITH RESPECT TO HIV INFECTION.
3. IDENTIFICATION OF MORPHOLOGICA CHARACTERISTICS OF PLACENTA SPECIFIC FOR HIV INFECTION. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN CHORIOAMNIONITIS AND LEAKINESS OF TROPHOBLAST BARRIER IN RELATION TO VERTICAL TRANSMISSION WILL BE STUDIED. 4. TIMING OF PERINATAL INFECTION AND VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF SIV WILL BE STUDIED IN BABOONS. LIMITED STUDIES ON THIS ASPECT WILL BE DONE IN CHIMPANZEES.

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

DANISH CANCER SOCIETY
Address
10,Gustav Wieds Vej 10
8000 Aarhus C
Denmark

Participants (3)

INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL MEDICINE PRINCE LEOPOLD
Belgium
Address
155,Nationalestraat 155
2000 Anvers /Antwerpen
NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF KENYA
Kenya
Address

00403 Karen
UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
Kenya
Address
Kenyatta National Hospital
2 Nairobi