To support the shift in European energy policy towards end-user services, researchers have analysed consumer behaviour in conjunction with national idiosyncrasies and the need to reduce energy demand in the EU. The Changing Behaviour project's objectives were fourfold. First, to develop a 'sophisticated but practical' model of end-user behaviour and stakeholder interaction. Second, to integrate knowledge about national cultures and institutions into demand management practice. Third, to pilot the transfer of context-tailored demand-side measures, and fourth, to create a toolkit to manage the socio-technical change involved in reducing energy demand. This work took place with the aid of intensive cooperation between researchers and organisations affected by these changes, including governmental or semi-governmental energy agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), consultancies and energy service companies. Researchers intend for the final results to help EU policy-makers draw up a more sustainable energy economy for the future by providing knowledge tools for energy efficiency policies and by enhancing the competencies of practitioners operating in the field through the exchange of best practices.