International Cooperation on HPC a) Cooperation with Mexico: in the frame of the Bilateral Agreement on Science and Technology between the European Union and the United States of Mexico[[Communiqué of the 8th Joint Steering Committee of 27th May 2016 in Brussels]], collaboration for the development of state-of-the-art HPC applications (codes, algorithms, software tools, etc.) in domains of common interest such as energy (including oil, renewables, wind, etc.), life sciences, earth sciences, climate change and air pollution, and natural disasters, among others.b) Cooperation with Brazil: developing state-of-the-art HPC applications in domains of common interest, such as in eHealth and drug design (e.g. related to diseases such as Zika and Dengue) or energy (e.g. renewables or management of natural resources). Proposals should put emphasis on application development towards exascale performance, develop codes, algorithms, other software tools, big data analytics, and hardware where appropriate. Proposals should ensure access to and using relevant big data suites as needed.The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of up to EUR 2 million for the cooperation with Mexico and up to EUR 2 million for the cooperation with Brazil would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. The aim is to develop strategic partnership in HPC with Brazil and Mexico that enables advancing the work on HPC applications in domains of common interest. Brazilian and Mexican partners will not be funded by the EU and they are expected to participate in the project with their own funding. Improved international cooperation of EU-Mexico and EU-Brazil research and industrial communities on advanced HPC application development. Improved sharing of information and expertise to solve common societal problems with the use of advanced computing.