Development of next generation biofuel and alternative renewable fuel technologies for aviation and shipping Proposals will develop next generation non-food/feed drop-in biofuel and alternative renewable fuel technologies for aviation and shipping transport, which improve substantially beyond the state-of-the-art the performance regarding conversion efficiency, cost and feedstock supply by addressing: liquid jet-like biofuels and alternative renewable fuels from biogenic residues and wastes through chemical, biochemical and thermochemical pathways, or a combination of them; and bunker fuel-like biofuels for shipping uses. Proposals are expected to bring the technology from TRL 3 to 5 (please see part G of the General Annexes). The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of between EUR 3 to 5 million would allow this challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. Decarbonising the aviation and shipping transport sectors, which are expanding fast and increasing the overall fossil fuel consumption, relies on biofuel and renewable fuels. The specific challenge is to increase the competitiveness of next generation biofuel and renewable fuel technologies in aviation and shipping, compared to fossil fuel alternatives. The supported projects are expected to reduce costs and improve performance of renewable fuels for aviation and shipping regarding the efficiency, the environment and society. The proposed solution is expected to contribute to achieving European leadership in this area.