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Innovative tools for the detection and mitigation of CBRN related contamination events of drinking water

Periodic Report Summary 2 - SAFEWATER (Innovative tools for the detection and mitigation of CBRN related contamination events of drinking water)

Project Context and Objectives:
The security of drinking water is increasingly recognised as a major challenge for municipalities and water utilities. The safety and or security of drinking water can be threatened by natural disasters, accidents or malevolent attacks. In the event of a contamination water spreads rapidly and hence extensively before the problem is detected. Contaminated drinking water can induce major epidemics, disrupt economic life and create mass panics.
SAFEWATER aims at developing a comprehensive event detection and event management solution for drinking water security management and mitigation against major deliberate, accidental or natural CBRN-related contaminations and in particular:
• To improve the detection capacities available for event detection by developing new cost-effective C, B, and RN sensors to be used in conjunction with existing sensors, benchmarking their capacities, and analysing their optimal placement location in the utilities' network. In particular SAFEWATER will develop and validate an innovative concept with a broad network of low-cost domestic sensors
• To develop a technology platform able to: capture and analyse the data collected by the sensors and from other information systems, signal the level of alert, and give a full overview of the crisis to the responders by means of online look-ahead simulations to efficiently manage potential crises
Based on, and driven by user requirements, SAFEWATER follows a user driven iterative two–stage process with a midterm assessment. For trialling the SAFEWATER solution it will be integrated with on utility-partners’ information systems; the SAFEWATER event detection capacities are tested under realistic conditions in dedicated testing facilities provided by the utilities.

Project Results:
WP1 – Water Security Usage Cases, Simulations, and Deployment in Beta-Site
Focus during the period was on customisation, installation and integration of the generic SAFEWATER solution – Release 1 in each utility in the context of each Usage Case, and testing of the ability of the solution in 3 contamination events of Chemical (C), Biological (B) and Radiological (R) contaminants. Each utility constructed a beta-test site with commercial sensors acting as reference to test the project sensors. Other monitoring sites were built in the field for testing the Event Detection System (EDS), Event Management System (EMS) and the Hydraulic and Water Quality Models software.
Each utility tested the SAFEWATER-developed sensor corresponding to its use case in the laboratory and/or in the beta-test site, evaluating the sensor's capability to detect the appropriate contaminant (C, B or R).
Each utility has connected to the SAFEWATER-developed EDS and EMS software and the Hydraulic and Water Quality Models, following the necessary integration and customisation. These solutions were employed to examine simulation scenarios in the water supply systems of the three Utilities.
A comprehensive intermediate practice drill using the offline SAFEWATER system was carried out at Hagihon, and the lessons learnt to date and conclusions regarding the function of the sensors, EDS, EMS and the Hydraulic and Water Quality Models were summarised.
WP2 – System Architecture, Processes & Event Management System (EDS)
The first release of the EMS took place just at the beginning of the period, and it has been further improved integrating additional components and functionality. Currently the EMS, the EDS, the online hydraulic simulator, and the water quality simulator, together with additional supporting tools, are running on three servers (one per water utility), which can be remotely accessed and used by the utilities.
Detailed discussions with the utilities lead to the definition of a “Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for dealing with a contamination event”, which was summarised in an internal document and used as the basis to produce deliverable D2.4 "Process & Interfaces Design (Release 2)".
With the main components of the system already integrated, and the availability of the SOP for a contamination event providing guidance for further development, the bulk of work planned for the upcoming months consists in implementing pending features, e.g. notification of missed deadlines regarding tasks, integration of additional simulation tools, e.g. source identification, and other improvements as discussed with the utilities, whose feedback is gathered on a regular basis through internet conferences and face to face meetings.
WP3 - Event Detection System (EDS)
The main tasks of WP3 were to install domestic sensors, calibrate spatial model, develop index for sensors selection and implement the EDS in the water utilities sites.
Currently Domestic sensors are installed in Hagihon and WVZ. Spatial model demonstration is installed in all three sites, and the EDS is implemented in all three sites.
A User Manual for the Virtual Sensor, Spatial Model, sensor combination ranking and EDS training tool is in progress, and will be available for review in May 2016.
The spatial model is used for measuring the lag time between locations in the network. This value of lag time is used by the domestic sensor in order to predict the future value confidence intervals. These confidence intervals are used in order to set the monitoring rang for each domestic sensor. As long as the domestic sensor does not violate these confidence intervals, no communication is performed.
The EDS system was improved with more detectors calibrated and set to work. The main improvement was in the area of sensors ranking, where a new index gives the user indication about the robustness of the EDS relative to the number of sensors. The user can use this index in order to set the optimal number and type of sensors. It may also be used for comparison between stations with related to the number of sensors needed.
WP4 – Simulators
Offline Simulators: A Sensor placement study was carried out for WDN1 to find the most appropriate locations for the domestic sensors. A similar study was started for WDN3, although mass oscillations caused by network operations prevented a reliable prediction of the spread of contamination and hence sensor placement recommendations. The investigations of incomplete mixing behaviour at different junction types (e.g. crossing of type X, U or N) by means of CFD simulations were completed. The resulting lookup-tables which define the incomplete mixing behaviour in dependence of the inflow and outflow conditions at the junctions were implemented in the water quality simulator EPANET-MSX.
Online Simulators: Two main approaches regarding data update which is necessary for online simulations was developed: (1) The online control data are exported from the SCADA system of the water utility into ASCII files (e.g. every 10 minutes) and the data from the ASCII files are transferred into a SQL database with tools provided by partner DM and 3S. (2) By means of the client software SIR OPC of partner 3S a direct connection to the OPC Server of the SCADA system has been realised. With this approach measurement data are available without delay. The online simulation models pilot zones of the three water utilities have been implemented. The simulations are permanently running on the three servers of Fraunhofer and on the test server of 3S. The offline water quality simulator (based on EPANET-MSX) has been coupled to the online hydraulic simulator of partner 3S. The results are displayed by the EMS.
Online Response Tools: The focus within the reporting period was on the development on two response tools:
a) The Look-Ahead simulator which predicts the spread of a contamination, installed at all 3 SAFEWATER servers and tested with all water utility partners.
b) The Online Source identification aiming to calculate candidates of locations in the network where the contamination may have been introduced. This calculation is based on the online hydraulic simulator and a simplified water quality model, and first tests have been performed.
Event Detection Training Tool: The Event Detection Training Tool (ED-TT) software version 1.0 was finalised and used for the training of the EDS.
WP5 – Sensors
In task 5.1 CEA developed a sensor capable to detect Beta radiation in water, which is a significant achievement that is in line with the needs the water utilities. The first release of the system was tested and evaluated in the laboratory at CEA under supervision of the water utilities, followed by installation at Hagihon in August 2015 for long term evaluation, including SCADA integration from March 2016. A new design of the system for the second release is now defined and is under production.
In task 5.2 Biomonitech is developing a sensor for detection of chemical toxicity based on luminescent bacteria as living sensors. A first kit was released for evaluation at water utilities, giving input to the change of chemical to be used for toxicity tests dependent on its low water solubility. The design of a new stand-alone system (2nd release) was concluded, and prototypes are under production.
In task 5.3 Acreo is developing a sensor system for detection of E. coli in drinking water, based on specific labelling and detection in an in-house developed flow cytometer. The first release of the system was evaluated at WVZ and gave important feedback for the second generation, both regarding functionality, and stability of the biochemical agents used for labelling bacteria. The second release has been designed and is now under production.

Potential Impact:
SAFEWATER will deliver a holistic solution for the detection and mitigation of CBRN contamination events of drinking water whether they are accidental, natural or malevolent.
The resulting platform will represent a major step forward in the water utilities’ capability to coordinate, integrate and improve the drinking water security and in particular detect and manage CBRN threats to drinking water security both in large cities of the EU and worldwide.
The key outcomes expected by the end of the project are:
1. An Event Detection and Management System which is able to cope with CBRN contamination events
2. Cutting edge modelling methods enabling near real-time overview of water networks in large urban areas. Incorporating spatial modelling, virtual sensor modelling, online CBRN detection, offline and online simulations that will provide supportive tools for the management of drinking water events.
3. Online simulators which are calibrated automatically and Event Detection Training Tool.
4. Enhanced online detection capabilities of the presence of chemical, biological and radiological contaminants together with virtual and domestic sensors that can effectively alert in due time crisis managers, decision makers and the general public.
This expected impact is recognised by the numerous declarations of interest from water utilities and organisations, such as the EPA concerned, by drinking water security. As a side result of the learning hands-on iterative development cycle of the SAFEWATER project international knowledge exchange on drinking water security issues has been catalysed. This may ultimately lead to greater international collaboration and cooperation both for preparing as well as dealing with actual drinking water crises related to CBRN contamination.

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