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Accelerator Research and Innovation for European Science and Society

Periodic Reporting for period 3 - ARIES (Accelerator Research and Innovation for European Science and Society)

Periodo di rendicontazione: 2020-05-01 al 2022-04-30

ARIES aims at developing and improving the European particle accelerators through new concepts and technologies, at providing access to top-class accelerator test infrastructures, at enlarging and further integrating the accelerator community, at developing a strategy for sustainable accelerator research and at transferring the benefits of accelerator technologies to science and society.
Network: “Accelerator applications” introduced new applications as radiation-induced grafting, surface microbial decontamination and sanitation of old books, archives and cultural heritage art crafts. Bacteria and viruses inactivation by low energy electron irradiation was demonstrated. The removal of sulphur and nitrogen from ship diesel exhaust gases using an electron beam was tested in the relevant environment and other environmental applications like sterilisation of sewage sludge were studied. Accelerators for cancer treatment with very high energy electron beams and for production of PET isotopes in hospitals were analysed and developed.
“Improving energy efficiency” organised workshops on concepts and technologies to improve sustainability of large research infrastructures: energy management schemes, heat recovery, energy efficient technologies. An efficient klystron power source improving energy efficiency from 50% to 65% for future compact accelerators was designed and analysed. A new circuit topology for pulsed quadrupole magnets improved energy efficiency by 80%, and the introduction of an energy recovery circuit allowed an additional 28% energy saving.
“New high-gradient plasma-based accelerators” organized two Workshops and a specialized course on plasma accelerators. It prepared the successful integration in the ESFRI Roadmap for pan-European Research Infrastructures of the EuPRAXIA plasma-wakefield FEL accelerator to be built at Frascati (Italy), and a strategy document for high gradient acceleration with plasmas and lasers that was integrated in the conclusions of the 2020 Update of the European Strategy on Particle Physics.
“New accelerator concept and improving performance” organized 27 workshops attended by 914 participants and produced about 60 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Mitigation measures for performance limitations in hadron synchrotrons were reviewed, and energy-recovery based colliders were studied and supported. Several alternative options for future research accelerators were analysed: muon colliders, storage rings and accelerator technologies for the detection or generation of gravitational waves, a gamma factory, applications of bent crystals in accelerators.
“Rings with ultra-low emittance” supported 7 Workshops on aspects of design and technology of low emittance rings subsystems. Injection schemes based on new beam physics ideas, on technological advance in the design of kickers and striplines, and on the development of new pulsed power modulators were analysed. Technological implications of operating with small aperture high gradient magnets were analysed, to promote the use of permanent magnets with no energy consumption.
“Advanced diagnostics at accelerators” organised 11 Workshops, with up to 239 participants. Common strategies and standardised diagnostics equipment for design and operation of accelerator diagnostics were defined and promoted.
Transnational Access:the 14 facilities have provided to 310 users over 25’000 hours of access to state-of-the-art accelerator test facilities, allowing testing and further development of superconducting magnet and cryogenics components, innovative materials with high thermal properties, advanced schemes for handling of high intensity and energy accelerator beams, new schemes for laser and plasma-based acceleration, components for industrial accelerators, and high-performance accelerating structures.
Joint Research Activities: “Promoting innovation” supported innovative technologies developed with industry as accelerator systems for treatment of marine diesel exhaust gas, new methods for manufacturing of material composites, new surface deposition techniques, special diagnostics systems, production of High Temperature Superconductor tapes, and development of new accelerator timing software.
“Innovative superconducting thin films” for high-performance accelerator cavities produced 50 superconducting samples polished and sputtered with different coatings in a network of 8 laboratories and universities across Europe. The performance of the coatings was analysed, and techniques defined for the coating of full cavities.
“RF modulated electron gun” developed a gun prototype for electron lenses, a promising technology to allow higher beam intensities in low-energy synchrotrons. Two test stands have been prepared and the prototype with modulator was built and tested.
“Materials for extreme thermal management”, to manage the thermal effects of very intense beams, developed novel high-performance composites including Molybdenum Carbide – Graphite, Chromium – Graphite, and Copper – Diamond.
“Very high-gradient acceleration techniques” designed and prepared a test line for multi-stage laser wakefield acceleration, performed experiments on exotic lasers for acceleration, and developed miniaturised dielectric accelerator structures.
Identification, development, and promotion of technologies for societal applications of accelerators: manufacturing of biologically safe organic fertilizers based on sewage sludge, collection and treatment of ballast water and sludge from the ship, cleaning exhaust gases emitted by diesel engines of sea transport vessels, treatment of cancer with high-energy electrons, and production of PET isotopes with compact accelerators.
Analysis and development of new technologies to improve energy efficiency of accelerators: high efficiency power sources, efficient beam transport systems, improved superconducting acceleration.
European coordination and promotion of acceleration technologies based on lasers and plasmas, resulting in the integration in the ESFRI Roadmap of the new EuPRAXIA first user facility based on plasmas.
Analysis of different alternative options for high-energy physics accelerators, resulting in the relaunching of the muon collider studies, a design with potentially lower environmental impact than mainstream options, and in a boost of the studies of accelerators with energy recovery. Detection of gravitational waves with accelerators was proposed and analysed, as well as using crystals and nanostructures in accelerators.
Novel methods for beam stabilisation and profile measurements in synchrotrons were proposed and studied.
New coating techniques using new compounds to achieve high-performance and low-consumption superconducting layers in accelerating structures were defined and tested on samples.
A modulated electron gun prototype for electron lenses aiming at increasing the beam intensity in low-energy synchrotrons was built and partially tested in a newly built test stand.
New chromium carbide graphite and copper diamond composites with high thermo-mechanical performance to be used in high energy accelerators and in other technological fields were developed and tested.
A test beam line for multi-stage plasma acceleration was designed and procured, exotic lasers were tested in driving plasma acceleration, and new dielectric micro-structures were produced and tested.
E-training course on accelerator science and technology.
3D model of the IRME-gun (left) and picture of the manufactured device (right).
A set of specimens in Molybdenum Carbide
Schematic view of the new LPA-UHI100 facility at CEA