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Environmental protection in the balkan countries: reuse of industrial mineral waste for waste water treatment and improvement of landfills


The report compromises documentation on mining, steel, coal and iron industry, petro-and carbochemical industry, important power plants, important industrial waste landfills and tailing ponds, large domestic and industrial waste landfills and dump sites in the countries Macedonia, Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. More than 20 locations in Bosnia-Herzegovina were assessed in detail, for 8 locations recommendations for reuse or reclamation were given. This information shall be used to start or contribute to projects for reclamation of dump sites. Furthermore the information collected shall be used for the reuse of waste material or tailing material.
The addition of fly ash as raw material substitutes expensive raw material by maintaining the product quality. Because of the low tendency to form a biofilm on the surface or to be sensitive to biocorrosion the tiles are intended for a market where mechanical, chemical and biological resistance is needed. Current status is that a new production line was installed for this product. The tiles fulfil the requirements of the standard tests : JUS EN 98 group B I, JUS EN 99, JUS EN 100, JUS EN 101, JUS EN 102, JUS EN 103, JUS EN 104, JUS EN 202, JUS EN 106. Our products, dense ceramic tiles based on fly ash, due to their excellent chemical and biological corrosion resistance, are very suitable for different application in aggressive environment. The main customers for our product are investors and constructors who would use the tiles: - on chemically aggressive soil or ground water, - sewage pipes and waste water treatment plants, - ports and harbours, - industrial floors in the fertilizer industry, food-industry and animal farms The results of the research work on utilization of fly ash in dense ceramic were or will be published in internationally recognized journals, quoted by Current Content and in proceedings of international and the Serbian scientific meetings, which makes them available to the scientific public. Marketing department of Ceramic Tile Factory "Zorka-Keramika" - abac, Serbia (Partner 12) will inform the potential customers informed about the new product: dense ceramic tile based on fly ash with improved chemical and biological resistance. Advertisement for this product will be in the brochures of "Zorka Keramika" products, trade fairs, TV advertisements, exhibition rooms of "Zorka Keramika" bigger distributors and other propaganda means.
Porous discs of different diameter and porosity are produced by mineral industrial waste materials as raw materials (slags, ashes, glass). Depending on porosity and applied pressure gas bubbles of different size and quantity are produced. The field of application is the aeration of water such as waste water pools, or the extraction of particles by floatation such as fibers in the waste water of paper mills.
A test field for reclamation of an ash lake has been established near Tuzla. 4 Test fields 15x15 m each with differences in thickness of reclamation layer, capillary barrier and vegetation. The substrates used are tailing materials from open pit mine nearby. The test field will be used to monitor the vegetation and for environmental studies by the university of Tuzla. The test field will serve as a reference for reclamation of ash lakes.