Managing urban waste As a means to handle the issue of waste management, a system has been developed in which polluters pay according to the waste they generate. Climate Change and Environment © PhotoDisc Waste-caused pollution is a serious environmental concern. Thus, the PAYT (Pay-As-You-Throw) project has concentrated on the effectiveness and knowledge of rate pricing as a policy option of reducing household wastes. The focus has been placed on large metropolitan areas and research has been done on the scientific analysis, potential and impact on the urban environment and solutions and recommendations. As a result, a handbook has been generated which provides a synthesis of all the research findings. Its format suits policy makers, who regard variable rate pricing as an option for urban management and planning. Additionally, it is comprised of information suitable for the pre-identified knowledge needs of urban decision makers, giving them practical advice to overcome obstacles and consider vital facets of PAYT. Since different members are involved in the research, an interdisciplinary perspective has been established, which provides a broader context of applicability. As such, it also interests a wider target audience and includes the most detailed information to the most general. Furthermore, the handbook provides specific sections that deal with crucial topics such as policy framework, legislative aspects, factor impacts, equity considerations, public awareness, system economics, and unwanted side effects. The future impact of the guidebook could serve in a multitude of cultural and socio-economic settings including the possibility of innovation and technology transfer for SMEs.