Fifth RTD Framework Programme, 1998-2002 The Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) set out the priorities for the European Union's research, technological development and demonstration (RTD) activities for the period 1998-2002. These priorities were selected on the basis of a set of common criteria reflecting the major concerns of increasing industrial competitiveness and the quality of life for European citizens. The FP5 had two distinct parts: the European Community (EC) framework programme covering research, technological development and demonstration activities; and the Euratom framework programme covering research and training activities in the nuclear sector. FP5 differed considerably from its predecessors. It was conceived to help solve problems and to respond to the major socio-economic challenges facing Europe. To maximise its impact, it focused on a limited number of research areas combining technological, industrial, economic, social and cultural aspects. Management procedures were also streamlined with an emphasis on simplifying procedures and systematically involving key players in research.To maintain and enhance, in the context of a genuine 'European research area', the research potential of European laboratories, universities and companies and their ability to produce knowledge of the highest level and high-quality technologies; and to help ensure that European research serves the Union's economic and social objectives: increasing industrial competitiveness and the quality of life for European citizens.FP5 had a simplified, multi-theme structure, consisting of seven 'Specific Programmes': four Thematic Programmes and three Horizontal Programmes. The Thematic Programmes, covering a series of specific problems were: - Quality of life and management of living resources (LIFE QUALITY); - User-friendly information society (IST); - Competitive and sustainable growth (GROWTH); - Energy, environment and sustainable development EESD). The Horizontal Programmes complemented the Thematic Programmes by responding to common needs across all research areas: - Confirming the international role of Community Research (INCO 2); - Promotion of innovation and encouragement of SME participation (INNOVATION-SME); - Improving human research potential and the socio-economic knowledge base (HUMAN POTENTIAL). In addition, the FP5 included the Euratom specific programme on Research and training in the field of nuclear energy covering the areas of controlled thermonuclear fusion and nuclear fisson. Both the EC and Euratom Framework Programmes contained a specific programme covering the direct RTD actions to be implemented by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC). These comprised research, scientific and technical support of an institutional nature. Full details of the objectives and RTD content of the specific programmes can be accessed at: http://cordis.europa.eu/fp5/Community support was provided for both 'indirect actions' in the area of RTD and demonstration and direct research activities, known as 'direct actions'. a) The "indirect actions" comprised five categories: - Shared-cost actions (finance, in principle, for up to 50% of the eligible costs for research projects, up to 35% of eligible costs for demonstration projects, support for access to research infrastructures, technology stimulation measures for SMEs, up to 50% of the eligible costs for 'co-operative research' projects, and 'collaborative research' activities covering up to 75% of the eligible costs of the exploratory phase); - Training fellowships (funding of up to 100% of the eligible costs and a contribution to the eligible costs of the host institution in an EU member state); - Support for networks (funding of up to 100% of the additional eligible costs of co-ordinating and implementing the network); - Concerted measures (funding of up to 100% of the additional eligible costs associated with co-ordinating national RTD projects already in receipt of funding); - Accompanying measures (up to 100% of the eligible costs for measures contributing towards the implementation of specific programmes or the preparation of future activities). b) The "direct actions" comprised institutional research and scientific and technological support activities implemented by the Joint Research Centre (JRC). Community funding was normally 100% of the costs of the direct action. The budget, of 14,960 million euros, was broken down as follows: - Quality of life and the management of living resources (2,413 million euro); - User-friendly information society (3,600 million euro); - Competitive and sustainable growth (2,705 million euro); - Energy, environment and sustainable development (2,125 million euro); - Confirming the international role of Community research (475 million euro) - Promotion of innovation and encouragement of participation of SMEs(363 million euro); - Improving human research potential and socio-eoncomic knowledge base(1,280 million euro); - Joint Research Centre activities (1,020 million euro); - Euratom Programme (979 million euro).