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Earth system models for the future

Project description

Earth system modelling and climate research in support of the Paris Agreement

EU-funded ESM2025 is an ambitious European research project on Earth system numerical modelling that will focus on the representation of interactions and couplings between Earth system model (ESM) components to improve key climate processes and better represent the full Earth system response to anthropogenic emissions and land-use change. ESM2025 will also take a step forward in providing relevant climate simulations for the development of ambitious and realistic mitigation and adaptation strategies in line with the Paris Agreement, by improving the physical coherence of climate and mitigation processes in ESMs and integrated assessment models. Expected project results will support international climate assessment reports (e.g. IPCC), climate change mitigation policy, climate change adaptation and local and national decision-making.


The current generation of Earth System Models (ESMs) provides an important scientific basis to understand climate change and inform policy action, both with respect to mitigation and adaptation to global change. However, ESMs need further development to reach their full potential to thoroughly design and assess options necessary to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement (PA), including the environmental impacts of both the mitigation pathways themselves and climate change associated with these pathways.

ESM2025 will develop such a new generation of ESMs through: (1) improving their representation of climate and biogeochemical cycles, using state-of-the-art observations, detailed theory and advanced machine learning techniques; (2) implementing new interactions and couplings between different components of the Earth system, enabling ESMs to run using emissions of major anthropogenic greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), aerosols and their precursors, delivering an unprecedented holistic modelling framework to simulate future Earth system changes; (3) co-developping an innovative framework for linking Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) and ESMs through improved consistency of their respective representations of climate and land-use, enabling the development of geophysically-sound mitigation pathways.

To achieve these objectives, ESM2025 brings together a world-leading team of experts in Earth system modelling, model evaluation and feedback analysis, IAMs, reduced complexity carbon-cycle climate models, climate education and science-policy communication, all working towards a common goal of developing and assessing robust pathways for realizing the PA. The new generation of ESMs and IAMs will maintain Europe at the forefront of international efforts to model the Earth system and provide invaluable support to European climate policy and climate-related educational activities, as well as to climate services and future IPCC assessments.

Call for proposal


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Sub call



Net EU contribution
€ 1 701 398,75
94165 Saint Mande Cedex

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Ile-de-France Ile-de-France Val-de-Marne
Activity type
Research Organisations
Total cost
No data

Participants (22)