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Wild grapevines endophytic microbiome: ecology, epigenetics and application in the biological control of wood pathogens, a synthetic microbiome approach.

Descripción del proyecto

Microbioma sintético contra las enfermedades de la madera de la vid

En los dos últimos decenios, las enfermedades de la madera de la vid (EMV) han afectado cada vez más a las vides («Vitis vinifera L.»). No cabe duda de que estas enfermedades representan el mayor reto para la viticultura moderna. Los viticultores llevan más de un siglo empleando fungicidas, insecticidas, herbicidas y fertilizantes sintéticos. Según investigaciones recientes, estos tratamientos pueden haber causado un desequilibrio en el microbioma endofítico de la vid. Esto constituye una posible explicación del reciente éxito de los patógenos asociados a las EMV. En el proyecto WildWoodMicrobes, financiado con fondos europeos, se combinará la patología vegetal, la epigenética y la ecología microbiana y se estudiarán las poblaciones silvestres de «V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris» («VVS»). El equipo del proyecto desentrañará la diversidad del microbioma endofítico de las poblaciones silvestres de «VVS», reintroducirá endófitos aislados de «VVS» en vides cultivadas y evaluará la eficacia del microbioma sintético para antagonizar los patógenos asociados a EMV.

Objetivo

In recent years, a general decline has been documented in several agriculturally relevant woody plants, and numerous
reports point towards a possible role of the plant-associated microbiome. This especially applies to grapevines (Vitis vinifera
L.) and to the recent outbreak of grapevine trunk diseases (GTD). This cluster of fungal diseases is considered the greatest
challenge in modern viticulture, due to the complexity of the different pathosystems and the lack of reliable control strategies.
During the last >100 years, vineyards have been routinely treated with fungicides, insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers.
Recent research have demonstrated that such treatments and other anthropic intervention (e.g. domestication, grafting,
training) affect the plant-associated microbiome. These human-driven alterations, exacerbated by grapevines clonal
propagation process, are believed to have led to an imbalance in grapevines endophytic microbiome, which may be a key
explanation for the recent success of GTD-associated pathogens. The best candidates to investigate the composition of a
balanced wood microbiome, unaffected by anthropic activities, are wild populations of V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris (VVS).
In this multidisciplinary project, I will join the fields of plant pathology, epigenetics and microbial ecology to (1) unravel the endophytic
microbiome diversity of wild populations of VVS, using DNA metabarcoding and in vitro isolation techniques; (2) re-introduce
endophytes isolated from VVS in cultivated grapevines, by means of a synthetic microbiome transfer; (3) assess the efficacy
of the synthetic microbiome in antagonizing GTD-associated pathogens, a next-generation approach to biological control.
The outcomes of this project will not only contribute to advance our understanding of grapevine endophytes ecology, but
have also the potential to provide a concrete solution to viticulture, for the benefit numerous European and non-European
countries.

Coordinador

UNIVERSITA DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE
Aportación neta de la UEn
€ 215 937,60
Dirección
VIA PALLADIO 8
33100 Udine
Italia

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Región
Nord-Est Friuli-Venezia Giulia Udine
Tipo de actividad
Higher or Secondary Education Establishments
Enlaces
Coste total
Sin datos

Socios (2)