CORDIS - Forschungsergebnisse der EU



Executive Summary:
Two-year project AMIANTE broadly allowed to know, examine and disseminate technology for disposal of material contaminated with asbestos fibers. Cooperation between the twelve beneficiaries took place in a creative atmosphere, the project was coordinated by the company ATON-HT.
The cooperating companies were:
* Muegge Electronic GmbH
* Zakład Materiałów Ceramicznych ZMC
* CentrumLine OÜ
* Panzer Ltd.
* Przedsiębiorstwo Innowacyjne-Wdrożeniawe Ekomotor Spółka z o.o.
* Przedsiębiorstwo Transportowe TRANSBUD BIS BIELAWY Spółka z o.o.
* Université Toulouse III
* Innowacja Polska Spółka z o.o.
* Promis-Tech Sp. z o.o.
The closure of the project allowed for a summary of the results achieved during his lifetime. The most important aspects are:
* The best solution for process of disposal of contaminated materials with asbestos fibers is horizontal reactor called ATON HR, because of continuous mixing and better distribution of the additive material in the entire volume of asbestos substance. Use of this reactor meets all environmental requirements and international regulations (Operation and Maintenance Manual to ATON HR in Annex 3)
* Devices were also checked in terms working with impact on the environment. During proper use there is no negative impact. There is also a threat to working people, because the device has proven a source of noise, power and of course asbestos fibers. The device has successfully passed all the carried out tests.
* The material after the process called ATONIT is neutral for the natural environmental. There is no harmful asbestos fibers in the chemical structures. This material can be used as commercial product. ATONIT was tested at an impact on the environment and the possibilities of application. Found the following possibilities applications for ATONITU:
o As an aggregate for road construction. Material can be used because of isolation parameters, and resistant to the effects of mechanical structure and no negative impact on the environment.
o As an insulating layer in the construction of landfills. The material has
a porous structure, thus improving the transport of gases from deeper layers. This protects the existing accommodation against uncontrolled collection of explosive gases and potentially inflammatory.
o As an additive in concrete composing. Application of the substance produced by the neutralization of asbestos increases resistance to compression and hardening rate of the final material.
* Using the machine can be disposed not only asbestos but also other materials such as building waste from detached house (brick, gypsum, concrete) containing
asbestos fibers.
* Needed gathering of world literature on the possibility of adapting the MTT method for disposal of waste contained with asbestos fibers as well as information on the kinetics of the changes occurring in the chemical structure in a material subjected to the impact of microwave field.
* Development of materials which are structural components for equipment. The main emphasis was on the insulating and absorption ceramic composition. The end result of this stage was to develop a recipe for the production of this material.
* Describe and study the basic parameters of process. Development of optimal conditions for efficient process.
* Checking the effectiveness of technology disposal of contaminated materials with harmful asbestos fibers. The process of microwave thermal treatment in relation to asbestos, which is hazardous for living organisms, proved effective and led to decomposition of atoms in chemical structure. After the process the fibers are absent and material is not harmful for any forms of live.
* Leading the process in accordance with the proposed technological parameters eliminates the problem of asbestos in place of its occurrence, by placing it in a transportable sea containers
All participants accept the completion of tasks in the project and thank the Commission for given opportunity of its realization.
Project Context and Objectives:
The development of civilization is accompanied by fast-growing "production" of various kinds of waste, including hazardous waste, which poses a threat to the environment and directly to humans. The process of the increasing threat has escalated to such a degree, that all the developed countries are taking a big effort to remove these threats or at least to minimize them. Unfortunately, much of this waste is still buried in the previously prepared landfills - this solution fails to eliminate the threats in the case of hazardous substances, that are not susceptible to rapid biodegradation.

An example of this short-sighted approach is the "recycling" of asbestos-containing waste. It is worth to underline the scale of the problem, since this material is very harmful to humans, as it causes the so-called asbestosis (an incurable lung disease) and the inventory of approximately 16 million tons of asbestos waste, mainly in asbestos cement (commonly referred to as 'eternit') boards, has been compiled in Poland.

The scale of the problem associated with the removal and disposal of asbestos-containing waste is huge and just as in other countries, where there are large quantities of such waste, it is essential to explore and implement other methods of asbestos disposal. Such a trend is observed in many developed countries (e.g. Switzerland and the UK), where, in fact, the previously dumped asbestos waste is dug out in order to neutralize it using other physical and chemical methods.

The AMIANTE project is related to the implementation of a new, unique method of the disposal of asbestos fibres that are widely used in many materials, including cement boards (eternit). The consortium allows the implementation of the wider range of research and the preparation of solutions that enable the method to be used on an industrial scale.

The primary objective of the AMIANTE project was to develop technology of asbestos waste disposal based on the MTT method (Microwave Thermal Treatment). An international consortium of 10 companies has been organized, under which the research, design, implementation and marketing tasks have been allocated. Partners of the RTD (research) companies have thoroughly analysed the process of thermal neutralization of asbestos using microwaves. Heating conditions have been optimised and the supplements, which help support this process, have been chosen. An efficient microwave reactor, where neutralization process of asbestos waste was carried out, has been constructed. A number of innovative materials and solutions used in the design of the reactor have been developed. In particular, special ceramics, which enable the control of the level of microwave absorption and which is resistant to thermal shocks, has been developed. Process control and efficient microwave generator supply systems have been developed. The system for remote monitoring and recording the performance of the reactors operating even in the most remote locations has also been implemented.
Also, a number of actions to propagate the developed technology have been carried out. The results of the project have been published in public media (newspapers, Internet) and announced at many professional conferences. They have also been presented at trade fairs and exhibitions. Demonstrations of the equipment's performance, attended by the invited experts, policy makers, government representatives, business prospects and journalists have been organized.
An important end result is to develop a commercial version of the ATON HR (ACM) reactor, designed for the disposal of asbestos-containing waste and mounted in a standard container with the possibility of transporting the reactor to the sites, where asbestos-containing waste is present. This makes it possible to neutralize hazardous waste at the site of presence, without the need for special transportation - which is in line with the EU Directive.

Another important objective of AMIANTE program was checking the material after the microwave process. The main parameter was the contain of asbestos fibres. Commonly known method, which determine fiber content in any material is to carry out microscopic studies and design documentation in the form of photographic. There were planned and conducted the many series of tests and research. On the basis of the parameters were chosen the best technical conduct such as temperature, residence time in the microwave field and the quantity/quality of the used additive.

The following report proves the validity of the AMIANTE method to complete transformation of fibrous structures in amorphous ATONIT.

Project Results:
Scientific Characterization of Hazardous Wastes Utilization Process with AMIANTE System
The purpose of this work package was to acquire a deeper understanding of the scientific knowledge that was relevant to the developments that were taking place in WPs 2-5. The scientific & technological issues addressed in this work-package included the heating process, the selection of the most appropriate electromagnetic field mode, the means by which a constant temperature of 1000°C could be achieved and the specially designed ceramic material which would be able to withstand temperatures close to 1300°C.
The main objectives were:
* To extend knowledge regarding AMIANTE technology for Hazardous Wastes Utilization Process.
* To model heating process and heat dissipation across system.
* Characterize utilization process of Chryso tile (white asbestos), Amosite, Crocidolite (Riebeckite), anthophyllite, tremolite and actinolite in temperature 1000°C by chemical equations.
* Define optimum time of process duration to increase system robustness.
* Define optimum chemical composition of additives with resonant frequencies close to 2,45GHz and 900MHz.
* Research on microwave system of heating and power supply system to reduce power supply and keep temperature of heating at level 1300°C with accuracy 12°C.
* Develop system for acquiring information and process maintenance.
Meeting schedule assumptions the lead partner of work-package 1 was INERTEC (INT). All Participants (without Promis-Tech Sp. z o.o. - PZO) were involved in collaborate on building a project foundations.
This work involved studies on behavior of hazardous asbestos wastes with additives in EM field generated by AMIANTE system. The simulation of heating process was performed with thermal analysis and modeling software products like ThermoAnalytics's WinTherm Pro. Next chemical equations was written to characterize process of convention asbestos fibers to non-hazardous particles. Also type of additive (e.g. alumina) vs. frequency of operation (910MHz or 2450MHz) were subject of research, i.e. we needed to develop material with resonant frequency close to frequency of operation. Selection of the most appropriate electromagnetic field mode (e.g. mode TE10 or mode TE11), one (1) for whole reactor. Method of keeping stable temperature of about 1000°C inside chamber was developed by means of sophisticated fuzzy logic algorithms. New type of ceramic material (e.g. Aluminum Oxide, Ceramic Foam, Silica, Silicon Carbide and Zirconia) and mechanical construction which were able to withstand temperatures close to 1300°C for more than 12 months was analyzed.
ATON-HT SA have developed an unique method for efficient disposal of asbestos fibers. In the conducted research studies Aton have focused on the disposal of asbestos cement boards (eternit), in plasterboards containing asbestos fibres and in cement boards (eternit) and isolation wool.
The essence of the method called MTT (Microwave Thermal Treatment) involves the use of concentrated electromagnetic field with frequency in the microwave band (2.45GHz or 915MHz) for the rapid heating of waste containing asbestos to the temperature above 1000°C. A special supplement is mixed with the thermally processed waste to support the absorption of microwaves and lower the temperature, at which the crystal structure of the fibers is subject to decomposition.
For the purpose of the development and effective implementation of this method a detailed analytical, as well as exploratory and promotion works plan has been developed; these have been then implemented under the AMIANTE project. According to the developed and adapted program the members of the established consortium have carried out the works, the scope and results of which are described in this report.
The laboratory results of asbestos - cement boards (eternit) microwave treatment is shown on the following pictures (photo 1 & photo 2).
The studies focused on the determination of optimum thermal process conditions, which ensure the total destruction of dangerous asbestos fibres. For this purpose, the selected types of waste (mainly eternit) were crushed in a special crusher and upon adding a substance supporting the process, they were fed into the ATON 20 reactor and ATON HR-Lab reactor. The product obtained in the process of thermal transformation was analysed using commercial several methods:
* microscopic examination, using a polarizing microscope,
* X-ray examination (XRD),

Photo 1 shows the pictures of fibres before the process and after the process. The material before process is contaminated with asbestos fibres.
The photo 1 show complete destruction of asbestos fibrous structure. The structure is very good showing and everyone can see the each hazardous fibres. After the process we can observe the different situation, there is no crystalline structure on the view. The material was changed the arrangement of atoms inside the crystal grid. This change is associated with the introduction of the energy potential allowing the interruption of existing structures in the entrance material. Microwave field of high density and very high temperature has favored the rapid changes the atomic order which was characterized for asbestos to disorderly grid characteristic for ATONIT.
Based on XRD analysis (photo 2) has documented no change in the composition of the elementary material. The process does not result in the loss and evaporation of any of the elements constituting the components of the material. The curve for the material before and after the process do not dramatically differ from each other. The changes may result from the use of a few percent of alkali addition.
All samples treated in microwaves changed their structure over 900°C. Next experiments have shown that in a case of some dopants, e.g. components of boron, sodium or phosphorus this temperature may be decreased about 80 - 120°C.
All tasks within WP1 were entirely realized.

Development of Ceramics and Mechanical Construction of the AMIANTE System
This work package included the production of a prototype AMIANTE system not larger than 2,5m/2,5m/2,5m able to process 200kg of contaminated material with asbestos per hour. Aside from the physical and throughput parameters, this workpackage focused on coming up with an additive material which would easily absorb microwave energy easily. Finally, the proposers developed a prototype off-gas filtering system on the basis of catalytic methods with off-gas stream flow at the level of at least 40m3/h.
Main objectives were:
* Produce a prototype AMIANTE system with capacity above 200kg/h.
* Produce a prototype reactor's chamber able to withstand temperatures of up to 1300°C and represent the highest durability standards with a working life of minimum 12 months.
* Produce a prototype additives materials able to easily absorb microwave energy at frequency of 2,45 GHz or 915MHz and be heated to over 1000ºC in 6-8 minutes with water concentration up to 15%, regardless of the chemical composition of the waste.
* Develop a prototype off-gas filtering system on the basis of catalytic methods with off-gas stream flow at level at least 40m3/h.
The lead Participant in work-package 2 was ZAMAC (ZMC).
We have started with development of metal skeleton. This development was leaded by selection of metals (e.g. Nickel, Cobalt, Special Alloys, Stainless Steel). Then mechanical construction and holders for power electronics were developed.. Next point was development of ceramics (e.g. Aluminum Oxide, Ceramic Foam, Silica, Silicon Carbide and Zirconia) and integration with skeleton. Also way of installation of thermal sensors (pyrometers and thermocouples) was investigated. We have used CAD tools (e.g. PowerSHAPE) which provided a complete environment to take product ideas from concept to reality. Finally development of additive was done.
As a part of WP2 two types of special ceramics for the purpose of filling process chambers have been developed. For thermal insulation of high temperature zones in the process chambers, ZAMAC (ZMC) have developed fibrous ceramics having good insulation properties (low thermal conductivity coefficient λ) and very little microwave attenuation, even at high temperatures. The most important operational parameters of the ceramics: λ < 1.97 kJ/kg/K in the temperature of 800ºC, attenuation of microwave energy characterized by the parameter ε" < 0.0002. The measurement of dielectric parameters in the microwave band was performed using a microwave measuring line with a slotted measuring line and a chamber, where the examined ceramic samples were heated up.
Finally the shape of ceramic elements was adapted to the shape and dimensions of the process chamber, in which the MTT process was carried out.
Ceramic profiles have been developed to fit the shape of the reactor's metal chamber - see photo 3.
Ceramics used as a heating element, heated by microwave energy have quite different properties. The ceramics are the most important element of the filling of MOS (Microwave Oxidation System) reactors in capturing dust and gases released in the process of thermal destruction of asbestos. The ceramics, also called "black" ceramics are characterized by very high-energy absorption capacity maintaining high resistance to high temperatures (up to 1600ºC) and resistance to alkaline substances contained in exhaust gases. The developed ceramics are composed of silicon carbide (SiC) powder sintered along with high purity Al¬2O3 alundum ceramics. The interior of the MOS reactor with microwave-absorbing ceramics filling is shown in photo 4.

The most important properties of all ceramic materials used are listed in Annex No. 1 (ZAMAC documentation stored at Zamac headquarters - Krakow, Poland).
To illustrate the effectiveness of the microwave heating of these ceramics, photo 5 depicts the result of recording the temperature distribution in the chamber of the MOS reactor carried out using a thermal imaging camera.

Photo 5 came from IR camera. A lighter colour corresponds to higher temperatures. In the photo, the places from which the microwaves are emitted into the chamber (the position of applicators) were marked.
Here, the pictures of the fittings made of "black" ceramics, which absorbs microwaves, can be seen.
The caption: The shape of the ceramic components, which absorb microwaves and form the filling of the reactor for afterburning of exhaust gases (in the MOS reactor).
The results of the tests made it possible to choose the shape of ceramic heating elements heated with microwaves ensuring the effective heating of exhaust gases and afterburning of pollutants in these gases.
The mechanical design of the reactors, along with the guidelines concerning the shape and dimensions of the ceramic components, has been developed at ATON-HT SA. It is worth noting that the construction of microwave reactor for destroying asbestos fibres has been connected with the reactor for capturing dust and afterburning the pollutants contained in the gases released in the process. This makes it possible to completely eliminate atmospheric emissions of noxious substances in exhaust gases, including dust containing asbestos fibres.
Two types of reactor designs for asbestos disposal have been developed: ATON 200 vertical reactor with a MOS reactor and ATON HR horizontal drum reactor with a MOS reactor. It is schematically presented in Figure 1.

In the case of the system with the ATON 200 reactor, the crushed asbestos-containing material (ACM), after adding the substance, which supports the process (sodium disilicate), is fed into the feed opening. Then it is slowly moved down the reactor chamber and heated to 900ºC using microwaves. Microwave energy is fed into the ATON 200 reactor chamber using several microwave applicators connected to generators. At the bottom, the reactor contains a crusher, which crushes the previously heated up material and causes its controlled pouring outside the chamber through the outlet opening.
The ATON-HR reactor has the construction of a ceramic drum placed inside a metal chamber with microwave applicators embedded on this chamber. The ceramic drum is filled with crushed material (ACM), which is heated up by microwave energy, and using controlled rotation, it moves along the drum.
Both reactors (ATON 200 and ATON HR) are connected to the ATON MOS reactor, in which the gases released during the heat treatment of waste are subjected to afterburning process.
Both reactor designs (ATON 200 and ATON HR) allow the adjustment of time the heat-processed material spends in a high-temperature zone (above 900ºC) - up to approx. 8 minutes. In the case of the ATON 200 reactor this time is controlled by adjusting the rotational speed of the cone crusher located at the bottom of the process chamber. In the case of the ATON-HR reactor the high-temperature processing time is selected by adjusting the revolutions of a dielectric drum, where the material is heated and transferred and by setting the angle of the drum's tilt. Both methods have proved effective and they can be easily used in commercial devices.
In the case of the ATON 200 reactor and MOS reactors their design has been developed in the form of segments with identical construction. This unification allows the installation of two reactors of different size, depending on the required system performance and allows the reduction of the equipment's production costs.
In the latest developed version the use of a MOS reactor along with the so-called hot cyclone - a system, which ensures very effective capturing of mineral substance dust and the afterburning of the exhaust gas pollutants is suggested. The developed and implemented system allows for the treatment of up to approx. 400 Nm3/h of exhaust gases.
An important feature of the developed reactors' design is locating them inside standard containers. This enables easy transportation of the equipment to the place, where asbestos is located. Therefore, it is possible to execute the European Parliament and Council Directive 2008/98/EC of 19 November 2008 (the principle of self-sufficiency and proximity, Article 16) and the Act on Waste of 27 April 2001 (Journal of Laws of 2001, No. 62, item. 628 as amended - Article 9(1)) recommending the disposal of waste in the place of its origin.
Based on the conducted studies it was found that the combination of the ATON HR reactor with the MOS reactor is in practice a more useful and more versatile system for the disposal of asbestos. Therefore, in many subsequent studies we focused mainly on tests using the ATON HR-Lab reactor and ATON HR 300.
All WP2 tasks were realized.
Microwave and Power Supply System Development.
This work-package involved the creation of power supply and microwave generation modules. The generator-radiator combo developed was delivered at frequency of 2,45GHz or 915MHz, with the aim of keeping the power consumption at a level of no more than 0,4 - 0,5 kW/h; it was also the aim to produce a heating sensors system which should guarantee that the heating process will be deterministic and controllable.
The main objectives were:
* Develop power supply and microwave generator modules, both should guarantee relatively short time of reactor start-up, i.e. about 45 minutes and thus obtaining of the required process parameters.
* Produce heating system which will guarantee stable operation at frequency of 2,45GHz or 915MHz; generators will be mutually isolated.
* Produce heating sensors system which will guarantee that heating process will be deterministic and controllable.
The lead Partner was Muegge Electronic GmbH (MUG). Partner that replace Muegge in month 13 - Promis-Tech took over this tasks.
Selection of the most appropriate electromagnetic field mode (e.g. mode TE10 or mode TE11), one (1) for whole reactor and optimizing the stream of microwave-generated energy into the reactor's chamber (min. deep of penetration will be 35% of the chambers width) to equalize the absorption of heat evenly among all contain of chamber what allowed us to heat hazardous wastes within minutes to temperatures of 1000oC. Optimization of radiation emission to keep the power consumption to the level of 0,4-0,5 kW per hour per kilogram of material processed. To develop easily installable microwave antennas and to develop the installation of several radiators which was mutually isolated and thus microwaves were send them directly at the thermally treated material what caused very high energy concentration in that material.
An important element of the developed technology is the system of microwave generation and transmission to heated material (developed as a part of the WP3). First of all, this involved the application of microwave power generators, which are energy efficient and resistant to external conditions. Designing and manufacturing of radiators, which transfer microwaves from the transmission line to the thermally processed material containing asbestos, was equally important.
For the generation of microwaves, generators with continuous wave magnetrons were used - developed and supplied by MUEGGE (MUG) and power supplies by the same company with an option of continuous control of power output (the so-called Switching Mode Power Supply) and simple LC power supplies without an option of continuous control of microwave power. These systems are designed to generate microwaves with the frequency of 2.45GHz +/- 25MHz.
An alternative microwave power system has been developed by PROMIS (see details in deliverable 3.2). This solution enables discrete adjustment of output power in the magnetrons - 33%, 66% and 100% of the magnetrons' maximum power, respectively. This system is used for the generation of microwaves by the magnetrons with maximum continuous power in the range of 1.5 kW-3 kW. This solution is described in detail in report 3.3.
Magnetrons with the output power of 3 kW (CW) were water-cooled. For this purpose, a closed system has been developed with cooling water circulation fitted with the so-called chiller for cooling down the water heated in the magnetrons. This system works effectively regardless of outside weather conditions (including the heat, when the outside temperature exceeded 40ºC).
To eliminate the complicated water-cooling system of the oscillator tubes (magnetrons) - an air-cooled generator system has been developed. These generators with air-flow cooling enable the generation of microwave with the power of up to 2 kW and the frequency of 2.45 GHz. To ensure efficient cooling, regardless of outside temperature, the suitable high-capacity fans have been selected.
The main technical parameters of the ATON HR 300 system combined with the MOS reactor:
* The reactors were installed in standard containers.
* Power: 3 x 400 V, 120 kW, 50Hz.
* Efficiency: up to 300 kg/h (depending on waste composition, including moisture).
* Microwave power: ATON HR reactor - 60 kW, CW, 2450 MHz.
MOS reactor - 45 kW, CW, 2450 MHz.
* Number of operators: 2.
* Exit gases: up to 400 Nm3/h, the composition of gases permitted by the standards and regulations in the EU.
The magnetrons' power supplies are installed in standard modules and compiled in cabinets - see photo 6.
An important solution, which streamlined the operation of ATON HR and ATON 200 reactors was the development of microwave applicators emitting microwave energy into the metal chambers of the reactors. The shape and dimensions of these applicators ensure the emission of field types (modes) with one polarization of the electric field. The mutual location of these applicators allowed for the elimination of harmful coupling between microwave generators; simultaneously, the adverse "hot spot" effect did not occur in the heated up material. The construction of the new system is shown in the photographs and drawings in the further parts of the report (WP4).
All tasks of WP3 were entirely realized.
Development of the Control and Communication Systems and Maintenance Procedures.
This work-package focused on creating a robust remote control
& communication system which was supposed to make the process of thermal treatment more effective and had the capability of tracking the process in a large number of units simultaneously.
The main objectives were:
* To develop an algorithm to control prototype AMIANTE system which can precisely measure the physical properties of the process (e.g. temperature inside reactor) and on the basis of knowledge of type of fibers on its input (e.g. Chrysotile (white asbestos), Amosite, Crocidolite (Riebeckite), anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite) drive inputs of power supply system to assure constant temperature close to 1300C and optimum power consumption at level 0,5 kW/h per 1kg of waste.
* To develop maintenance procedures.
The lead Participant was Innowacja Polska Spółka z o.o.(INNOPOL).
In this WP they have developed fuzzy logic algorithm which is able to drive power electronics on the basis of knowledge related to the process temperature parameters (inside reactor and off-gasses) and mixture of input substances. Therefore they have defined several separate membership functions defining particular temperature ranges (e.g. 1200-1400 for off-gasses and 800-1200 for reactor's ceramics) needed to control the process properly. Next we have defined the "truth values" related to the heating process control. According to the number of temperature measuring elements and power generators and system architecture, these "truth values" were addressed to the group or individual inputs of the system. After research on propositional fuzzy logics (e.g. Basic propositional, Łukasiewicz, Gödel, Product fuzzy logic, Monoidal t-norm logic, Rational Pavelka logic) they have considered use of predicate fuzzy logics which extends the classic fuzzy logics by adding universal and existential quantifiers in a manner similar to the way that predicate logic is created from propositional logic. This allows to make control processor more intelligent and due to prediction ability make heating process more effective. Also they have developed global control system able to collect data from at least of 200 installations simultaneously. Separate task was devoted to development of maintenance procedures for personnel according to quality systems like ISO.
All power supplies were fitted with control circuits to ensure:
* control of the magnetrons' anode current,
* automatic filament voltage reduction (according to the magnetron manufacturer's recommendations),
* automatic power cut-off, when the magnetron block limit temperature is exceeded,
* control of the coolant flow (for water-cooled systems),
* electronic systems for microwave power start and reduction.
Generator blocks are connected to power supply by adequately protected cables. This ensures optimum arrangement of control cabinets and cupboards with power supplies inside a standard container. Inside the generator blocks there are magnetrons mounted on rectangular waveguides manufactured in the WR 26 standard, magnetrons filament voltage transformers, fans and supply and control voltage terminal sockets.
To protect the magnetrons from damage caused by even a momentary increase in the power reflected from the load, the waveguide, through which microwave energy is being transmitted, is connected to the so-called microwave circulator. This system, which is described in detail in report 3.2 directs the energy reflected in the transmission line or from the reactor to the so-called water load, in which heating the water absorbs the energy. In this system, microwave oscillator tubes "work" under constant conditions, without the risk of overheating or electrical breakdowns in the magnetron, which are a characteristic effect in the case of superposition (summation) of the wave generated in the magnetron and the reflected wave.
However, in order for the transmission of microwaves to the load, which processes the waste containing asbestos, to be energy efficient - the so-called energy match of the generator to the load is necessary. Using waveguide reflectometer, it was possible to develop simple apertures mounted in the waveguides, enabling the reduction in the ratio of the so-called standing wave to the wfs value of <1.5 regardless of the type of the disposed asbestos waste and its temperature.
The implemented MTT technology requires the microwave process chamber to be constructed it a way that makes it possible to focus microwave energy in the heat-processed material placed inside the chamber. As a result of design works and the conducted tests, the designs of cylindrical chambers with radiators mounted on the walls have been developed. Radiators emit an electromagnetic wave with one polarization (vertical or horizontal, depending on the location of the radiator). The distribution of radiators and their shape is important. Figure 2 presents the simplified construction of a metal chamber of a single heating segment with embedded heating radiators.
A characteristic feature of the presented microwave heating system is the lack of coupling between the radiators mounted on the reactor walls. This means that there is no significant transmission of microwave energy between the radiators and after matching the entire line the microwave energy can be absorbed by the processed material.
The described system ensures the minimization of energy consumption in the process and long-term operation of microwave oscillator tubes (magnetrons).
The process of the neutralization of asbestos fibers requires that the material, after mixing with a substance or preparation that supports the process, stays in the temperature of min. 900-1000ºC for a fixed period (approx. 4-6 minutes). Thus, the continuous measurements of the temperature inside the reactor and process control based on the results of such measurements are needed. Therefore, high-temperature thermocouples are arranged in every segment of the reactor's construction. The signal from the thermocouples, after the electronic processing, enables the control of the process by adjusting the speed of shifting the material, turning the microwave power on and off or the reduction in the power of the microwave generators.
The effective technological process control system has been developed as a part of WP4. For this purpose, specialized software was developed, that lets the operator control the size of the microwave power from individual microwave generators, thermal processing time, the rate at which the material is loaded into the reactor, the method of dispensing the additive that supports the process, the extraction of the emitted process exhaust gases and other important process parameters. The controller supports both the ATON-HR reactor and the MOS reactor. This is necessary for the proper functioning of the entire system: effective treatment of waste containing asbestos and the simultaneous disposal of the emitted contaminated process gases.
The controller is connected with the system of the thermocouples, which measure the temperature of the processed material in the subsequent sections of both reactors and controls the process to ensure the maintenance of the required high temperature in all sections and the required time the material spends in a high-temperature zone.

Essential (key) parameters of the process controlled by the developed system:
* multi-point temperature measurement (thermocouples),
* multi-point measurement of the temperature of the selected ceramic elements,
* multi-point measurement of microwave power generated by the magnetrons,
* measurement of reflected power (in the selected waveguide lines),
* measurements of exhaust gas composition (analyser of the selected gas components),
* control of the amount of the additives supporting the process,
* monitoring the disintegration of asbestos waste (asbestos cement panels),
* controlling the "flow" of the heat-processed material.

Figure 3 presents a block diagram illustrating a method of control system operation.
The control system employs a WAGO 750-841 microprocessor controller with a touch screen panel. The display is mounted on a control cabinet - see photo 7.
Full visualisation of the most important process parameters has been ensured. The display shows the diagram of the device with temperature values in each section. This allows the operator to quickly and easily control the process. The photo below presents a display view in the course of the process. The diagram of the device shows two reactors: the ATON-HR reactor and the MOS reactor. Both reactor diagrams display currently recorded temperature, including the temperature of the gases leaving the MOS reactor and gases after cooling in the energy exchangers.

The screen schematically shows microwave generators marked with different colours, depending on the actual quantity of the generated microwave power. Power generators emitting maximum microwave power are marked in red, generators that emit only 50% of maximum power are marked in green and turned off generators in white. The controller automatically enables and disables the individual generators - depending on the recorded temperatures in the individual sections of the device.
The temperatures recorded by all thermocouples mounted in the reactors and power of the individual generators is automatically stored in electronic form.
Report 4.2 describes the developed and tested communication system allowing the remote control of the process by radio (GSM system). Figure 4 shows the diagram of the system.
The system allows simultaneous control of several working devices.
Regardless of the transmission system described above, the developed controller program allows the recording of the course of these temperatures during the process in the form of clear diagrams. An option of the program that allows the transfer of all the recorded parameters of the process via internet connection has also been developed. This makes it possible to control the regularity of the ongoing technological process in virtually all the devices delivered to the user regardless of where the operating devices are located. Furthermore, this system is very useful for service staff - in many cases it allows the operator to determine the cause of failure or improper operation before the service team departs to the location of these reactors.
All WP4 tasks were fully done.

Integration and Testing.
It was necessary to integrate the mechanical and technological components of the AMIANTE and test out their performance against the parameters/standards developed in WP1, WP2, WP3. The tests were performed in a laboratory environment, under controlled conditions.
The main objectives were:
* To integrate a prototype AMIANTE system, i.e.
o build reactor's chamber able to withstand temperatures of up to 1300°C with dimensions 2,5m/2,5m/2,5m,
o mount temperature sensors,
o mount microwave power generators,
o connect to the control system based on PC platform.
The leader of this work-package was Panzer Ltd. (PNZ)
Whole system was integrated in laboratory conditions. Prototype system supplied with materials with different asbestos fibers (3-5 types: e.g. Chrysotile (white asbestos), Amosite, Crocidolite (Riebeckite), anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite). Then, tests of heating chamber was performed. Parameters like: temperature (target: 1000oC) and its dissipation (target: equal inside chamber) and stability (target: 12C), off-gasses chemical composition, energy consumption (target: 1kW/h per 1kg of waste or less) and gas flow (not lees then 10 l/s) was monitored. Next, Atonit was added to different materials to test potential areas of application.
Based on the previously described works carried out as a part of WP1, WP2, WP3 and the works carried out by the ATON-HT SA engineers, the following versions of the reactors for the disposal of waste containing asbestos have been developed:
* ATON 20 laboratory reactor (lab) along with MOS 20 reactor,
* ATON-HR laboratory reactor (lab) along with MOS 20 reactor,
* ATON 200 reactor along with MOS 20 reactor,
* ATON HR 300 reactor along with MOS 200 reactor and additional pre-heater.
The ATON 20 laboratory reactor (lab) (shown in photo 9) is designed to study the process of thermal disposal of waste containing asbestos by batch method with samples weighing up to approx. 1.5-2 kg.
The control system allows the precise control of the process and recording of the key process parameters. The device is designed to determine the optimum process conditions for different types of waste containing asbestos.
Tests of the disposal of fragmented asbestos cement panels (concrete slabs with asbestos fibre) have been carried out. All test were provided with ATON HR Lab (laboratory scale tests) and with ATON HR 300 ( industrial scale tests). Previously defined process conditions necessary for efficient conversion of the fibrous structure of asbestos into the amorphous structure have been confirmed. The requirements for fragmenting asbestos cement panels and the dosing ratio of the process-enhancing additive have been specified.
The ATON-HR Lab reactor and the MOS 20 reactor have found the widest range of applications in test processes. This device allows the operator to optimise the thermal treatment processes in the wide range of waste. As a part of the AMIANTE program, particular emphasis has been put on the examination of the disposal of asbestos waste mixtures with other waste, especially waste with high energy released during combustion. This process has two important advantages:
* it makes it possible to dispose various types of waste simultaneously (in practice, this is a very common need),
* it significantly reduces the energy required to heat the asbestos waste to the required high temperature.
Burning in the ATON HR Lab and ATON HR 300 reactors of other waste that require large amounts of oxygen (for the effective afterburning of combustible components) requires a combination of an effective post-process gas afterburning system - the ATON 20 MOS reactor must be included. Photo 10 presents the complete ATON-HR 300 system with the MOS 20 reactor.

All tests have been carried out with the simultaneous control of the composition of exhaust gases - using the LZO JUM MODEL 3 - 200 analyser and a the MRU MODEL MGA5 exhaust gas analyser.
The graphs below show the examples of the recorded carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and VOC's content in the course of the process of thermal disposal of asbestos along with fragmented tires and biological waste. In these tests cement boards (eternit) with painting and another pollution was treated.

Given the results of the tests it has been established that the optimum system that can find broad application on a commercial scale is the system consisting of the ATON HR 300 reactor along with the ATON MOS reactor of a suitably matched size. Also, the recommended contents of waste mixtures (for some of the most common types of waste) have been determined
All tasks of WP5 were realized.

AMIANTE System Validation and Demonstration
The AMIANTE system was installed in designated locations where asbestos was being removed. Different types of asbestos-containing waste and different types of asbestos was utilized in the AMIANTE. The project team was measuring the parameters of the AMIANTE by-product ATONIT as well as the parameters of the off-gases concentrations. This pilot run of the AMIANTE, was followed by a demonstration activity, open to the press and interested parties, including but not limited to local officials, asbestos-management companies, local residents etc.
Workpackage Objectives were:
* To validate the performance of the integrated AMIANTE system with respect to different asbestos fibers (3-5 types: e.g. Chrysotile (white asbestos), Amosite, Crocidolite (Riebeckite), anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite) for 5 different end-users.
* Report on chemical composition of off-gasses processed with AMIANTE system.
* Report on user acceptance and feedback on the performance of the system in real-world trials.
The lead Participant was Centrumline OÜ (CL).
Through contacts of Consortium members we have identified and engaged with at least 5 potential end users of the system to act as Beta-testers for the developed AMIANTE system. Provide support to the Beta-test users as they begin to run the AMIANTE system to utilize asbestos at least in 2 places of disposal (old building, asbestos mitigation company). Different asbestos fibers (3-5 types: e.g. Chrysotile (white asbestos), Amosite, Crocidolite (Riebeckite), anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite), from different types of SMEs (e.g. asbestos treatment agents) for example. Based on feedback received, prepare a detailed enhancement and augmentation plan, highlighting those areas where the algorithms and characteristics of the system could be improved.
Based on the tests performed in a laboratory scale (as a part of the WP5) a system composed of the ATON HR 300 reactor and ATON MOS 200 reactor has been designed and constructed on a technical scale. Both reactors with auxiliary devices, along with cabinets and control systems have been mounted in two standard 20-foot containers (6058/2438/2591).
Tests of the complete system have been carried out in Jelgava (Latvia).
Photo 13 presents the entire assembled system for the disposal of waste containing asbestos in the course of the tests carried out in April 2010 in Jelgava (Latvia).
Waste containing petroleum pollution along with the crushed asbestos panels have been disposed of. During the process the exhaust gas composition has been recorded using the MRU NOVA 2000 exhaust gas analyzer. The exhaust gas measurements have been recorded by an independent specialized laboratory at the University of Riga.
During tests, the performance of the device has achieved the level of up to 450kg/h. It is worth mentioning that all the measurement results have proved both the effectiveness of the process of disposing the asbestos fibres, as well as the effective afterburning of the pollutants in gases released in the process. All requirements and limits specified in the regulations for environmental protection in force in all European Union countries have been met.
During the described tests in Jelgava a demonstration for the interested representatives of Riga authorities, companies operating in the waste disposal and treatment sector and journalists dealing with environmental protection, was held. Annex no 1 presents the list of people attending the show and the summary of the technological tests, along with the selected pages of the publications in Latvia, which are associated with the MTT technology being implemented and developed as a part of the AMIANTE program. Thanks to the active participation of PANCERS from Latvia - a member of the consortium, the effective promotion of the technology has been carried out in the country, opening up real conditions for the future sales of the technology and equipment to the companies involved in the disposal of asbestos in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.
The success of the works carried out in Latvia was also recognized by a high-volume newspaper in the Russian Federation (a copy of the article dedicated to this test can also be found in Annex no 2).
All tasks of WP6 were realized.

WP 7
Innovation Related Activities and Training
A media & field campaign raising awareness about the new technology in select regions, additional, optional, technical adjustments to deal with alternative wastes which 3rd parties may express interest in processing through the AMIANTE. In this work-package, the Exploitation Manager's work focused on submitting patent applications, and a concerted effort to disseminate the AMIANTE unit through a variety of media outlets and channels.
Work-package Objectives were:
* To ensure that all project results are formulated and compiled into a protectable form and all necessary patents are made.
* To transfer specific knowledge from the RTD performers to the SME participants to enable them to rapidly apply and embed the technology onto specific products.
* To broadcast the benefits of the developed technology and knowledge beyond the consortium to potential industrial user communities.
* To assess the socio-economic impact of the generated knowledge and technology. To formulate the project results into a protectable form and apply for patent protection by month 24 of the project.
* To transfer knowledge from the RTD performers to the SME participants through 5 technology transfer events and interactions including placements of staff providing a total of 100 hours of technology transfer.
* To broadcast the benefits of the developed technology and knowledge beyond the consortium to potential industrial user communities such as electronic manufacturers and distributors and transport hubs.
The leader of this work-package was Université Toulouse III (UNITOU).
Patent searches and patent applications were carried out. Case study parts and design tools was created to enable the partners to quickly absorb the developed technology. Dissemination activities was carried out including publications in the form of editorials, technical papers and trade press. Major exhibitions was attended, conference presentations was given and case study components was exhibited. To broadcast to a much wider audience, videos, web based activity and e-seminars was used. Further promotion of the technology development through networks of industrial contacts within the service supply chain structures in which the participants and key members of the associations reside was also coordinated.. Specifically-targeted, direct marketing campaigns was conducted to invite Association members & their insurance sector customers to view demonstrators at the participant's sites, and consider case study presentations relating to the potential environmental, health & safety and cost reduction impacts of the new system in use. This was achieved by demonstrating the functions relating to the new AMIANTE system as well as demonstrations of the techno-economic advantages of the system and the social, health and safety benefits associated with those.. A knowledge transfer and exploitation plan between the partners regarding protection, ownership and licensing of the IPR were produced. RTD institutions performed trainings for SME Partners to pass knowledge and technology acquired during project lifecycle.
An important part of the AMIANTE project activities was the transfer of knowledge from the RTD participants to the SME's and the propagation to potential users of the technologies developed outside the consortium. Transfer of knowledge, information and experience as a part of the consortium took place during meetings, joint work, preparing reports and exchange of correspondence. Each participant has comprehensive information concerning all stages of the ongoing project: extensive and detailed review of the literature, examined options, optimum selection and the results of research, technological and engineering works.
Dissemination of knowledge generated in the AMIANTE project was carried out on a multi-channel basis:
Participation in conferences, seminars, et al.
Participation in professional conferences and seminars was treated as one of the main way to reach scientific and research communities, as well as specialists and companies dealing with the asbestos waste disposal. This is the optimum environment for the dissemination of the unknown innovative technologies, which require public outreach and propagation. Currently, a series of such conferences and seminars are organized each year, bringing together teams and companies specializing in the given subject matter. Below is a list of the conferences, where detailed information about the implemented AMIANTE project has been presented.
The analysis of asbestos waste disposal market.
Since asbestos waste is classified as hazardous, the removal of asbestos-containing components and the methods of their disposal are described in detail and included in the applicable regulations. Therefore, in the case of contact with this kind of companies one must demonstrate a very good knowledge of the subject in terms of technology, organization of dismantling and disposal of the elements containing asbestos, as well as the knowledge of laws and economic and financial data. During the project, a variety of information on companies that deal with disposal of asbestos waste, as well as the companies interested in implementing AMIANTE-based technology has been collected.
Direct contact with potential customers, providing a detailed description of the AMIANTE system.
For customers opting to work closely with the implementation and operation of the AMIANTE system, individual business plans have been developed based on individual circumstances and requirements. This applies particularly to the possibility of recovering energy at each stage of the process, which is directly linked with lowering the cost of utilization and the development of business models to replace the existing methods with the microwave technology.
Business models for customers interested in starting a direct cooperation in the field of asbestos waste microwave disposal have been developed. The unquestionable advantage of the AMIANTE technology is the total destruction of noxious fibrous structure of asbestos. The possibility of obtaining funds for the asbestos waste neutralization, which fundamentally changes the position of the proposed technology, has been indicated.
Other methods, particularly the most widely used storage method, amount to the isolation of waste from the environment, leaving the problem of their factual utilization to future generations. This happens, of course, due to the economics of the neutralization process, i.e. its cost. Because asbestos is a mineral (inorganic) material, its heating is expensive. One way to reduce these costs is the simultaneous disposal of organic waste, which during the utilization emits thermal energy that can be used to heat the asbestos waste, reducing the disposal costs.
Also the socio-economic impact of introducing the new technology of waste disposal has been studied. Storage method, which is currently most widely used, meets the growing protests of the society, expressed by, among others, objecting to the construction of new landfills. Also, the existing landfills are increasingly objectionable, because of the difficulties in their operation: transports of large trucks filled with asbestos waste, which is often poorly protected, earthworks on site and in the surroundings etc. On the other hand, the disposal of the dismantled asbestos elements is a big nuisance for the residents, a potential hazard from the emission of asbestos fibers and a major financial burden.
Microwave technology constitutes a tangible alternative to the storage method. Since the equipment is transportable and can be operated anywhere, it is possible to use it to eliminate even small amounts of asbestos waste collected locally or from the direct removal.
From the organizational and financial point of view, the venture, in which a local government body, such as a municipality, is a main organizer, is more efficient, better controlled, and can obtain financial support, such as the environmental protection fund. In several places in Poland, where there are major problems with the removal of asbestos waste, thanks to the propagation of information on innovative technology, the implementation of several pilot projects based on the AMIANTE system is being planned.
Contact with the authorities responsible for waste management.
Another important task involved the contact with the authorities responsible for waste management. The problem of asbestos waste disposal has been treated differently depending on the country. The majority of countries have admitted the possibility of using different methods of disposal, on the principal condition of proving their effectiveness. In other countries, like for example in Poland, amending the law on waste has proved necessary, so that new technologies can be applied in general practice.
In order to get local administration acquainted with the potential of the AMIANTE system, a demonstration of the equipment's operation was organized. It was carried out near the asbestos waste landfill, which is owned by the municipality of Oława (near Wrocław, Poland). Below is a list of the participants. The show fulfilled its role, since the decision makers and local government employees had the opportunity to see both the effectiveness of the presented technology and the organization of the asbestos disposal process.
All the main targets of WP7 were obtained. However, it should be noted here that some of the work planned for completion in the remaining months of the project could not be completed due to project termination. This in particular applies to the training of the SMEs.

Consortium Management.
Detailed co-ordination of the work at consortium level and coordination information and management between the EC and project consortium.
Work-package objectives was:
* To co-ordinate all project activity and act as the administrative interface with the Commission.
* To manage time, resources and facilities allocation to optimize the application of resource and establish exploitation mechanisms and protection of IPR (Intellectual Property Rights).
The lead Partner was ATON-HT (ATON).
On the beginning of the Project the Participant CMS (France) has withdrawn the Consortium and was replaced by Polish company TRANSBUD.
After the first year of the Project MUEGGE lost its SME status due to proprietary changes and decided to leave the Project. It was replaced by PROMIS-TECH (Poland). This process took some time but PROMIS have performed MUEGGE tasks with great success starting from month 13 (for more details check deliverables 3.2 and 3.3).
The main problem was over three months delay in realization of research work by INERTEC, France. The research laboratory and all equipment as well as safety system were completed but necessary permission for hazardous waste handling and processing was edited with long delay due to administration procedures. In result the researches, analysis and reporting was realized in 11th, 12th and 13th months of the project and both INERTEC and TOULOUSE UNIVERSITY were very strongly engaged in these months. It does not affected on the next period but we had to shift deliverable 7.1. (TOULOUSE UNIV.) for few months and deliverable 1.5. was done by ATON instead of INERTEC.
Website was developed.
It should be made absolutely clear that the failure to establish and maintain proper and effective communications between the European Commission and the Coordinator, and between the Coordinator and the project consortium is attributable principally to the person who took on the responsibility of the project coordinator, namely Mr. Ryszard Bajorek.
This failure was evident both in the multiple assurances given by Mr. Bajorek to ATON's management and to the rest of the project partners that the European Commission was satisfied with the project progress, and in the many delays in getting the European Commission the documentation required as per the DoW.

The consortium was not only misled to the very end by Mr. Bajorek as to the concerns and actions of the European Commission (the consortium found out about the fact of the project being terminated after 4 months!), it was also misinformed as to the level and extent of information required for inclusion in the project reporting (the entire process of preparing and delivering reports was never planned out and explained to the consortium).
The consortium as a whole proceeded with the work notwithstanding these issues, in part because most of the organizations had cooperated before and were very familiar with the subject matter, and in part because at the outset of the project the technological objectives and work schedule were reviewed in considerable detail. It also goes without saying that communication on technical matters did not necessarily require input from the person of the project coordinator, hence communication between the technical staff from the different organizations was maintained at the requisite level and so helped in the completion of project tasks.
As a result it was possible to deliver results as per the DoW. Having said this, it cannot be stressed enough that the shortcomings of the project coordinator dealt a blow to the impression that the European Commission had of the performance of the project consortium, which eventually resulted in the decision to terminate the project.
It is worth mentioning here that as soon as it was revealed to the consortium that the project had been cancelled, Mr. Bajorek was immediately fired by ATON as a consequence, and replaced with Ms. Anna Widawska.
ATON is fully cognizant of the fact that the blame for the mismanagement of the coordination aspects of this project lies squarely with its organization, not with the rest of the consortium.

Project Management.
This work package considered mainly a management of project resource and technical activities at WP and task level including workflow scheduling. Also work plan changes control and communication between partners within the work package was provided.
The main objective was efficient and effective management of the technical work program to ensure the objectives of the project are realized.
The leader of this work-package was ATON-HT (ATON).
A framework for effective project delivery was established by ATON and described mainly in section B.2. Implementation. The project progress was monitored at quarterly project meetings by the "project board" to include a representative from each partner. In addition the social and economic impact was monitored and the status discussed at the quarterly board meetings. Detailed minutes was recorded for all meetings and used to co-ordinate the technical work of the project.
The main objective was the coordination of scientific and technological activities within the Project. Starting from kick-off meeting, knowledge concerning modern and innovative microwave technology was spread among the Participants within the Consortium through written materials, presentations, descriptions, discussions etc. This new technology was used in number of activities realized within successive work-packages.
The task of the first phase of the work was to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method of disposal of asbestos-containing materials MTT. To this end, INERTEC and Toulouse in the meetings and exchange of information submitted, details of the process conditions and discussed their progress. In the case of research conducted in Toulouse also discusses the methods and fields of analytical studies.
In the next stage of work was carried Amiante design and construction, whose purpose was the construction of the device. Work on the mechanical design of microwave reactor was coordinated by specialists from the ATON as shape, geometry and dimensions of the reactor had to be subordinated to the main function of which is the efficient transfer of microwave energy to waste.
In addition to mechanical design, developed a number of necessary systems, including microwave power and control, and materials necessary for the design of the reactor, including ceramics and insulating materials. ATON, in addition to his participation merits, was fully co-ordination and exchange of information, documentation, etc. In particular, it was important to check and monitor the compliance of the design parameters, electrical, etc. The test of the effectiveness of coordination in this phase of the project was the submission and launch the device in its entirety.
A very important part of coordination was to disseminate information about microwave asbestos waste disposal method. In particular, it was important to unify the content of information about technology, its possibilities, the parameters of the device and others.
Proper scientific management was made more difficult by the lack of professional oversight on the part of the Coordinator, Mr. Ryszard Bajorek. Nonetheless, the consortium, thanks to frequent contacts between the technical persons from each organization involved, was able to move forward on the technological objectives and keep each other up-to-date on work done. At the same time, it should be noted that the project meetings organized by the Coordinator did make these contacts easier.

Potential Impact:
Developed innovative method of disposal of asbestos waste has a significant impact both on business connected with the disposal of asbestos waste and - consequently - in its socio - economic.
The gradual replacement of traditional methods (storage) technology, microwave disposal of asbestos waste will cause changes in business related to disposal of asbestos waste. So far, the most widely used method of waste disposal facility, after they dismantled and packaged in airtight PE film by a professional company, was their burial in a specially designated landfill. After completion of landfill waste is covered with two-meter layer of soil. Landfill area is so defective as it was impossible to its normal use (eg construction of any building). The actual disposal of asbestos waste has been postponed to an indefinite future because under this method of asbestos waste has only been isolated from the environment, and not actually utilized. Very troublesome aspect of this method is to transport over long distances (hundreds of kilometers), which significantly increases the risk of emission of asbestos fibers into the environment and constitutes an essential element of a cost method.
Other methods of disposal of asbestos waste are used minimally because of a much higher cost of disposal (met. plasma - around 1500 euros/kg) or the formation of toxic substances as residues utilization process (chemical met.).
So far, based on the method of storage, the activities of companies consisted of the removal of asbestos-containing items, packing them in plastic HDPE (high density polyethylene) with double walls, and then transporting them to landfill.
This method of disposal of asbestos waste is an important influence on social conditions, as it is disruptive, dangerous and costly for the environment. It also imposed "from above" as it is usually organized and managed by officials from the province.
In a case of microwave technology neutralization of asbestos waste business model changes significantly. First of all, the transport of asbestos waste is minimized, and in some cases completely eliminated. The device Amiante is mobile and can be installed and used in close proximity to the source of asbestos waste (removal of the asbestos waste and their disposal). In particular, in the case of land where once were produced asbestos-containing components (panels, seals, etc.), the device can be positioned and installed directly on the site. Organization of asbestos waste neutralization may therefore take local organizations and as
a local initiative can adjust their actions to the requirements and expectations of the local community.
The transfer decision and the organization of asbestos waste at the local level can also benefit from a number of EU aid funds, which are awarded for specific projects carried out locally. A prerequisite is to develop municipal waste management plan, which includes all types of waste, including asbestos. As shown by tests approved waste disposal facility in the device Amiante, the process can also be conducted for asbestos-containing material mixed with organic waste, such as ground contaminated with petroleum compounds or other compounds decomposing at high temperatures. The combination of these processes enables the use of heat generated during the recycling of organic waste to heat the asbestos waste which in turn lowers the cost of disposal of asbestos waste. Taking into account this possibility in the plans for waste management reduces the overall cost of waste disposal and reduces the execution time of program development.
The basic model of the system Amiante contains asbestos waste crusher for hard (cement - asbestos) coupled to a microwave reactor. However, preparation for disposal other than asbestos - cement is not possible with this crusher. In order to extend the capabilities of the system Amiante, a snap was constructed, which allow utilization of a number of other asbestos-containing materials:
* waste gypsum - asbestos used as insulation boards, pipe lagging, et al.;
* waste from plaster containing asbestos;
* other construction waste such as plastic parts, wood, etc., which had contact with asbestos and are subject to the same procedure as asbestos waste.
The system is universal and there are no limits to apply it to all types of asbestos waste. This enables the organization that utilizes asbestos waste, a comprehensive implementation of these services, in which there are a variety of asbestos waste:
* demolition work, which generate a wide range of asbestos waste;
* repair of buildings containing asbestos components;
* decommissioning of old plant parts containing asbestos;
* replacement of asbestos insulation in construction, energy, chemical industry, etc.;
* disposal of items containing asbestos in the demolition and scrapping of vessels and ships.
AMIANTE system resolves the issue of asbestos waste in different conditions, as discussed above with the following benefits:
* the possibility of an actual waste disposal facility by the total destruction of the fibrous structure, which is the sole cause of harmfulness of asbestos;
* system mobility - the possibility of utilization of in situ (in place of the waste), which removes any barriers related to the location of asbestos waste landfills and allows to proceed with the disposal of waste in their manufacturing process (demolition, repairs, etc.);
* no need to transport hazardous waste from the location of the disposal site. This avoids the cost of specialized transportation and the additional risk of harmful asbestos fibers into the environment;
* the possibility of disposal of all types of asbestos waste in a single device;
* possibility of neutralization of asbestos waste, contaminated with other harmful substances such as paints, oils or chemicals, which cannot be stored in a manner used for "clean" of asbestos waste;
* low cost of recycling compared to other methods;
* tests carried out showed that the applied technology (seals, energy recovery, et al.) prevent negative effects on the environment, and the residue (ATONIT) are neutral to the environment. This is a very big improvement compared with the method of storage because it eliminates a number of potential sources of danger to the issue (packaging, transport, etc.). It was confirmed that ATONIT may be applied as aggregate or admixed to cement on production stage, so this method is "zero waste technology";
* the massive use of devices Amiante, will resolve the problem of asbestos waste on a large scale with minimal - in comparison with the method of storage - threat to the environment.
In order to disseminate information about new technology, waste disposal facility conducted a series of actions, including:
* meetings,
* conferences,
* demonstrations,
* publications,
* internet,
* contact with potential users,
* local programs asbestos waste.
They have been described in detail in the main part of this report.

List of Websites: