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Mechanisms of chromosome segregation in mammalian oocytes

Obiettivo

All animal life starts with the fertilization of an egg. A haploid egg and a haploid sperm fuse and together they form a new genetically unique embryo. But surprisingly, eggs frequently contain an incorrect number of chromosomes. Depending on the age of the woman, 10-50% of eggs are chromosomally abnormal. This high percentage of abnormal eggs results from chromosome segregation errors during oocyte maturation, the process by which a diploid oocyte matures into a haploid egg. Thus, errors during meiosis in human oocytes are the most common cause of pregnancy losses and contribute to approximately 95% of human aneuploidy such as Down’s syndrome. Surprisingly, we still know very little about how mammalian oocytes mature into eggs, and it is still unclear why chromosome segregation during meiosis is so much more error-prone than during mitosis.

My proposal combines three innovative and complementary approaches towards understanding how homologous chromosomes are segregated and why oocyte maturation in mammals is so error-prone. Specifically, we will work towards the following three aims: 1. We will complete the first large scale screen for genes required for accurate progression through meiosis in mammalian oocytes and characterize the function of a few selected genes in detail. 2. We will analyse meiosis and investigate potential causes of chromosome segregation errors directly in live human oocytes. 3. We will study the function of an F-actin spindle and a chromosome-associated myosin that might be required for chromosome segregation in mammalian oocytes.

Because errors during oocyte maturation lead to pregnancy loss, birth defects and infertility, this work will not only provide important insights into fundamental cellular mechanisms, but will also have important implications for human health.

Invito a presentare proposte

ERC-2013-StG
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Meccanismo di finanziamento

ERC-SG - ERC Starting Grant

Istituzione ospitante

MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FORDERUNG DER WISSENSCHAFTEN EV
Indirizzo
Hofgartenstrasse 8
80539 Munchen
Germania

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Tipo di attività
Research Organisations
Contatto amministrativo
Manfred Messerschmidt (Mr.)
Ricercatore principale
Melina Schuh (Dr.)
Contributo UE
€ 1 046 539,66

Beneficiari (2)

MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FORDERUNG DER WISSENSCHAFTEN EV
Germania
Contributo UE
€ 1 046 539,66
Indirizzo
Hofgartenstrasse 8
80539 Munchen

Mostra sulla mappa

Tipo di attività
Research Organisations
Contatto amministrativo
Manfred Messerschmidt (Mr.)
Ricercatore principale
Melina Schuh (Dr.)
MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

Partecipazione conclusa

United Kingdom
Contributo UE
€ 441 071,34
Indirizzo
20 Park Crescent
W1B 1AL London

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Tipo di attività
Public bodies (excluding Research Organisations and Secondary or Higher Education Establishments)
Contatto amministrativo
Lisa Fields (Mrs.)