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Pan-European Training, research and education network on Electromagnetic Risk management

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - PETER (Pan-European Training, research and education network on Electromagnetic Riskmanagement)

Période du rapport: 2021-04-01 au 2023-09-30

Sophisticated electronic technologies are increasingly used in mission- and safety-critical systems where electromagnetic interference (EMI) can result in substantial risks to people and the environment. Traditionally, EMI engineering have been following a rule-based approach, which is unable to cope with complex modern situations. With this rule-based approach, during the design stage, guidelines are prescribed, which result in the application of a set of mitigation techniques, which are verified in the finished product against existing standards. This rule-based approach is costly, but with no guarantee of the required performance. What is needed is a truly interdisciplinary – but also revolutionary – approach to this very serious problem. More specifically, one needs to bring together expertise from 4 key areas – electromagnetic compatibility, reliability engineering, functional safety and risk management – and implement a risk-based EMC approach, which was the goal of the PETER project.

Why is it important for society?

The shift from the traditional "rule-based" approach to the innovative "risk-based" approach in EMI management is crucial for ensuring the safety and reliability of modern high-tech systems, especially in critical applications such as medical systems and electric/autonomous vehicles. The inherent flaws in the rule-based approach, such as uncertainties about the adequacy of mitigation strategies and standards lagging behind technological advancements, pose serious risks to system dependability. The interdisciplinary and revolutionary nature of the risk-based approach proposed by the PETER consortium aims to comprehensively address EMI issues throughout a system's entire lifecycle, providing safer and more systems through hazard-and-risk analysis, risk reduction, and robust verification and validation processes.

What were the overall objectives?

PETER, the Pan-European Training, research and education network on ElectroMagnetic Risk Management, played a crucial role in facilitating an interdisciplinary and revolutionary approach to address the significant shortcomings of the rule-based approach with respect to EMI. In order to achieve this objective a group of 15 highly skilled early-stage researchers (ESRs) investigated and developed hazard-and-risk analysis techniques (WP1), effective EMI risk-reduction methods (WP2), improved verification-and-validation approaches (WP3), and applied the EMI risk-management methodology in industry-driven case studies across various sectors and design levels (WP4).
Researchers within the scope of electromagnetic compatibility, reliability engineering, functional safety and risk management, worked together in the PETER project and achieved the following main results:

ESR1 - Samikshya Ghosalkar developed and applied statistical EMI-aware risk-assessment methodologies in a simple smart-grid substation.

ESR2 - Arash Nateghi assessed a wireless smart meter and PLC broadband communication device in terms of the vulnerability of their communication network to EMI.

ESR3 - Lokesh Devaraj proposed a novel probabilistic graphical approach to align the various aspects of EMC and functional safety.

ESR4 - Mumpy Das experimentally characterised the electromagnetic environment inside a hospital as a basis to establish an appropriate source-victim table.

ESR5 - Hasan Habib developed and assessed EMI detectors to mitigate safety-critical errors caused by EMI, initially focusing on EMI-induced bit errors in wired communication channels through simulations, proposing and theoretically studying various EMI detectors,

ESR6 - Pejman Memar explored the electromagnetic interference vulnerability of Reed-Solomon codes (RSCodes), aiming to enhance their resilience against disturbances by investigating factors leading to false negatives, studying over-voltage detection effectiveness.

ESR7 - Qazi Mashaal Khan initiated research to assess electromagnetic risks associated with behavioral changes due to aging or component replacement, and aided in developing electromagnetic immunity and emission behavioral models.

ESR8 - Oskari Leppäaho devised a test set-up and methodology to characterize shielding/grounding effectiveness under vibration and thermal influences, while also applying a global EMC risk analysis to assure safety targets, exemplified through a case study on shielded cables in an automated lane-centring system.

ESR9 - Arunkumar H. Venkateshaiah conducted dedicated experiments to study stochastic electromagnetic field coupling to PCB traces and concentrated on the IC design workflow for a custom IC to enable direct interference measurement of interference on-chip.

ESR10 - Nancy Omollo studied the electromagnetic environment on board ships with a specific focus on the issue of power distribution systems of ships, ultimately concluding that insulated systems are the optimal choice for onboard power distribution.

ESR11 - Mohammad Tishehzan developed a workflow framework for incorporating all steps of the risk-based EMI approach during system development inside a modular assurance case.

ESR12 - Zhao Chen enhanced and aligned Barco's Design-for-EMC (DfEMC) process with IEC requirements, emphasizing EMC, specifically "EM resonance coupling," and integrating risk management to assess and manage electromagnetic resonance-related hazards in medical display systems.

ESR13 - Vasiliki Gkatsi explored the application of the risk-based EMC approach to V2V, V2I, and V2X systems, creating a risk-based EMC system analysis platform for automotive environments through practical experiments and conducting shielding effectiveness measurements on planar materials using a dual transverse electromagnetic cell.

ESR14 - Akram Ramezani employed a risk-based and EMI-aware approach to design an automotive integrated circuit, initially addressing EMC issues in circuits utilizing silicon on insulator (SOI) technology and subsequently developing solutions.

ESR15 - Fernando Ribeiro Arduini proposed a classification methodology for IEMI criticality classes based on exposure and impact, while focusing on refining the methodology, developing an intelligent metric approach with grid operators, and incorporating the probability of IEMI scenario occurrence for a more comprehensive evaluation.
Before PETER, there was no intersectoral, integrated training that focused on EMI risk management. The disciplines EMC, reliability engineering and functional safety only received very limited attention within the curriculum of engineering education and were taught in separate courses. The aim of PETER was to deliver ambitious, highly structured, multi-disciplinary training on EMI risk management considering all aspects of the system lifecycle and directly applicable to many sectors, including automotive, medical, railway, maritime, avionics, machinery and critical infrastructures.

In addition, several PETER beneficiaries or partner organisations are actively involved in international standardisation working groups or committees. Examples include, but are not limited to: IEEE 1848, IEC 61000-1-2, IEC 60601-1-2, IEC 61508, ISO 26262 and ISO 21448. As such, PETER will continue to aim at a strong contribution to the European standardisation.
PETER Overview Map
PETER WP Overview