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EU Integration and Differentiation for Effectiveness and Accountability

Livrables

Policy Paper on Differentiation in the EU Industrial Strategy

This deliverable will address differentiation in the EU industrial strategy This policy paper will explore the emergence of new types of differentiation dynamics which are taking place in the field of the Single Market in particular in the industrial sector It will expand task 42 and provide one more a fifth case study to be analyzed as subpolicy area At the same time it will complement task 43 and connect the study of industrial policy within the EU with the overall results of the WP2 including differentiation dynamics in the Single Market

Research Paper on differentiation and governance

"This research paper will review the state of the art and elaborate an analytical framework for studying differentiated governance. It will study the interplay between the legal and organizational dimensions of differentiated integration by scrutinizing the following elements for Member State, non-Member States and sub-State entities: - modes of governance, differentiation though hard/soft governance (Community method with ""hard"", strongly legalized policy instruments versus intergovernmental/transgovernmental cooperation and open method of coordination with ""softer"", less legalized and more operational instruments); - sites of governance, differentiation through participation in primary and secondary EU bodies, such as committees, EU agencies, policy networks or programmes (see Lavenex 2015); - levels of governance, differentiation through multi-level (EU, national and sub-national) and network governance; - stages of governance, differentiation through participation in decision-shaping, decision-making,"

Research Paper on political unity and differentiation

Thsi research paper will analyze and address the conditions under which political unity can be guaranteed while at the same time constitutional diversity within a sui generis system can be safeguarded The respective research question is how much differentiation is requested in order to allow for the development into a political community based on shared rights and obligations of membership Lord 2015 784 In a first step the analysis will highlight the differences between the political system political cultures and traditions social cleavages territoriality socioeconomic factors and demographic patterns in the EU Burgess 1993 1999 This would also include an assessment of the issue of the deteriorating rule of law situation in Hungary and Poland In a second step this task assesses in how far forms of political differentiation have changed the narrative of political unity The European Council for instance clearly refers to this option in its Conclusions of February 2015 for the first time Additionally what role do increasing nationalist backlashes and Eurosceptic trends as well as issues of politicization in Member States play In a third step the task will identify the conditions and forms of political differentiation that would facilitate deepening allow for widening and prevent or trigger respectively disintegration

Guidelines on the main concepts to be used in the framework of the project and their definition

In accordance with the recommendation of projects first review by the European Commission IAI has produced an EU IDEA conceptual glossary The glossary contains the main concepts used in our project and their definitions in line with the EU IDEA GA the theoretical framework developed in D 21 and the outcome of internal discussions with policy WP leaders

Policy Paper on regional comparative perspective

Policy paper coordinated by FIIA with contributions from CIDOB and IAI on the lessons and challenges for differentiation in Europe which can be drawn on the basis of the experience of three other regional organizations MERCOSUR the African Union AU and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN The paper analyzes how differentiation is applied in these three regional organizations and how it ties in with different policy fields and issue areas heterogeneity of membership and views on sovereignty for example Specifically the paper addresses a threefold research question First does differentiation lead to fragmentation and even disintegration or does it on the other hand prevent crises manage asymmetries and render the decisionmaking process smoother In other words does it lead to centrifugal or centripetal dynamics in the institution in question Second what are the ramifications of differentiated integration for accountability and political legitimacy of the regional organization Third what is the impact of differentiation on cooperation both internally and externally with other countries or regions Drawing on the three case studies the paper will result in a deepened understanding of differentiation in other regions in the world and its conclusions and lessons learnt will allow for the drawing of policy recommendations for the EU

Policy Brief on policy recommendations for EU and national policy-makers

This policy brief will develop policy recommendations for EU and national decisionmakers on how to approach differentiation in order to ensure democratic and effective EU governance Policy recommendations will take into account the normative institutional political and social implications in terms of opportunities benefits and risks of more or less differentiation investigated in key policy fields WPs 46 as well as those deriving from Brexit WP 7 and by looking at the preferences among governments political forces and citizens within and outside the EU collected in WP 8

Research Paper on differentiation in the CFSP and EU defence

Compare and contrast the findings of the above mentioned tasks and examine the pros and cons of various forms of differentiation in the field of foreign security and defence policy for effective governance of the EU buyin by Member States countries with accession aspirations and other partners and discuss their linkages to foundational elements of EUs constitutionalism and identity as well as accountability

Policy Brief on Brexit, foreign, security and defence policy

This policy paper will address the features of the future EUUK relationship in the key policy area of foreign security and defence policy In particular it will address whether how and why this relationship differs from previous instances of EU partnership with third countries and explore the political and economic opportunities and challenges that this entails also for citizens and the private sector as relevant

Research Paper on differentiation in the EMU and the single market

Thi research paper will collect and compare the findings of the policy papers and on the basis of this provide recommendations on how to improve the effectiveness sustainability and acceptance of differentiation practices in the field of the EMU and the single market

Policy Paper on the experience of lead groups

Analyze and asses the role and function of lead groups in the CFSP and discuss their implications for the effectiveness of the CFSP and EUs unity ie sustainability The lead groups under investigation include Germany and France in the Normandy format addressing the war in Donbas Ukraine and Germany France and the UK in EU33 in the negotiations concerning Irans nuclear program

Policy Paper on Treaty-based mechanisms and informal forms of differentiation in the CFSP

Review of the Treatybased mechanisms of differentiation in the CFSP As these have been used rarely evaluate their political and practical limitations and asses their potential Explore instances of informal differentiation such as the interplay between national and EU initiatives and assess its implications for coherence and innovation in EU foreign policymaking Envisaged policy processes include subregional strategies for Africa and the Western Balkans among other areas

Research paper on third country participation in EU regulatory agencies

Based on a systematic coding and drawing on official documents the research paper will analyze third country participation in EU regulatory agenciesThis research paper locates at the crossroad between WP2 and WP6 On the one hand it applies the conceptual framework developed in D21 Research Paper on differentiation and governance On the other it builds upon the work done in WP6 on differentiated integration in the area of freedom security and justice AFSJ

Research Paper on differentiation and accountability

This research paper will review of the state of the art and elaborate an analytical framework for studying accountability mechanisms The accountability framework studies the multitude of distinct arrangements that ensure accountability of differentiated governance in the EU by analyzingmodels of accountability that exist under supranational intergovernmental regulatory and other arrangements of differentiated governance as defined in legal commitments with each accountability arrangement corresponding to one or more of the modes of governance under the overall analytical framework andorganizational practices in accountability forums in particular but not only the delegation from parliaments andor parliamentary bodies to executive actors and the responsibility of these actors to parliaments andor parliamentary bodies at different levels of governanceOn this basis the accountability framework establishes a detailed set of criteria for the assessment and evaluation of democratic accountability of differentiated governance at the EU and the national level including for assessing and evaluating specific mechanisms that were established to hold differentiated governance accountable with respect to individual sites of governance In order to allow for a wideranging but finegrained analysis the accountability framework finally defines a small set of indicators for examining accountability mechanisms in differentiated governance

Policy Paper on political opinion on differentiation as policy choice

This policy paper will investigate the level of support foropposition to European integration in the different policy areas where differentiation takes place through interviews with members of governments at national and local level and representatives of political forces across the political spectrum along both the leftright and EuroscepticEurophile axes This allows to 1 track the variation of preferences from one policy area to the other 2 map internal divisions among parties which are likely to influence government positions 3 map national divisions and 4 target more precisely causes and drivers of Euroscepticism The elite interviews hence will be aimed at mapping preferences on EU integration among governments and political forces in selected Member States Czech Republic France Finland Germany Italy the United Kingdom and selected nonEU countries Norway Turkey Ukraine In terms of scope of time and resources available EU IDEA has to limit the elite survey to this selection of countries It will still generate comprehensive research findings as the selection of Member States is representative in geographical terms and in view of different positions regarding differentiation as a policy choice Additionally this task assesses elite views on differentiation in countries with particular relations to the EU the UK on its way out of the Union Turkey as an accession country the Ukraine linked to the EU through a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement and Norway representing an EEA country

Research Paper on identity and differentiation

Building on the general definition that European identity is established by European elites and citizens European acts of being doing and saying Schmidt 2010 this research paper will look at how the identity discourse in the EU and enlargement countries has changed in view of differentiation becoming the new normal in European integration The analysis will consider the three dimensions of differentiation assessing in how far differentiation has contributed to and preserved European identity deepening at what point differentiation causes a dilution of European identity disintegration and what are the territorialgeographical limits to European identity widening Additionally with a particular eye on Brexit and the stalled accession negotiations with Turkey this task will discuss in how far alternatives to EU membership interlink with the narrative of the EU being united in diversity

Research Paper on legal uniformity and differentiation

This research paper will analyze and address the conditions under which legal uniformity can be preserved We understand legal uniformity as anchored to the acquis communautaire which covers not only primary and secondary law but also the adherence to the aims of political economic and monetary union and the administrative capacity to effectively apply and implement the acquis Council of the European Union 2005 Differentiation can result from differences in judicial interpretation perspectives on justice legal culture and traditions and sources of law In terms of deepening this task will take stock of these differences in the EU and the need for differentiation Additionally we will assess in how far this need has changed the narrative of the EUs community orthodoxy In terms of widening this task will analyse in how far differentiation among Member States impacts on the EU club narrative towards potential accession countries Is the process of increasing differentiation in the EU leading toward the creation of a new membership status such as partial or associated or junior membership Would this be a second class membership Is the Brexit process increasing the grey zone between the ins and outs

Policy brief on small/medium-sized member states in EU foreign, security and defence policies

The policy brief will analyze the position of the relevant policymakers and stakeholders from small and midsized member states visavis differentiated integration in foreign security and defence policies focusing on pro and cons of such differentiation

Research paper on AFSJ, including migration

Scientific study where the theoretical framework designed along the WP13 will be tested with the four cases studies analysed along this WP In this research paper the theoretical systematisation efforts will be put in practices through the 4 case studies in order to analyse the adequacy of differentiation in the AFSJ for effective EU governance

Policy Paper on External cooperation on migration and mobility

The form and comprehensiveness of cooperation on migration management between the EU and third countries vary implicating external differentiation The differing focus depth and extent of bilateral cooperation of individual Member States or blocks of Member States with particular third countries affect the development of disintegrated EU migration policies Thus a focus on this area is needed for a better understanding of both the internal and the external dimensions of differentiation and the links between the two

Policy Brief on Brexit, economic governance and the single market

This policy paper will address the features of the future EUUK relationship in the key policy area of economic governance and the single market In particular it will address whether how and why this relationship differs from previous instances of EU partnership with third countries and explore the political and economic opportunities and challenges that this entails also for citizens and the private sector as relevant

Policy paper on EU-Norway relations and DI

This policy paper D57 will assess EUNorway relations It will explore forms of cooperation and association between Norway and the EU in the field of EUs foreign security and defence policy in particular and discuss effectiveness and sustainability of such agreements as a case study of external differentiation

Policy Paper on scenarios development

This policy paper will assess the potential implications of various forms of differentiated cooperation over the mediumterm 10 years ahead A series of scenarios will flesh out potential developments of differentiation in the EU with a view to normative consistency practical efficiency and output and political legitimacy In line with the distinctive approach of the EU IDEA project the scenarios will cover differentiation both within the EU and externally involving cooperation with third countries and will focus on a range of shaping actors relevant to future differentiation that is larger than conventionally assumed These include subnational authorities and nonstate actors as well as nonEU countries given the importance of evolving forms of differentiated integration with nonMember States Scenarios are not intended as predictive tools but as narratives from the future which build on the strong conceptual and methodological bedrock of the project to offer a vivid portray of the challenges opportunities and risks of various forms and degrees of differentiation for the future of Europe

Policy Paper on PESCO and other forms of differentiation in EU defence

Review and evaluate the Treatybased mechanisms of differentiation in the field of EU defence Explore the recent launch the PESCO and analyse its potential and conceivable challenges for effectiveness and unity Review and analyse other forms of differentiation such as bi or minilateral defence cooperation among European States and their interlinkages with the EU defence

Research Paper on the impact of differentiation on EU governance

Thsi research paper will offer an innovative and comprehensive assessment on the impact of differentiation on EU governance This assessment will encompass the constitutional social local and external aspects of differentiation and address different degrees and types of differentiation according to both its legal and organizational dimensions including accountability mechanisms in differentiated integration The final aim is to provide an overall appraisal of how much and what form of differentiation propels European integration forward as a whole and for specific policy areas and what differentiation should be avoided to prevent disintegration in future

Policy paper on Western Balkans participation in EU regulatory agencies

This policy paper will analyze Western Balkan countries participation in EU regulatory agencies Based on WP2 conceptual framework and empirical insights under WP6 on Western Balkans participation in police cooperation activities IDSCS will systematically assess these unique partnerships between the EU and the Western Balkans

Policy Paper on differentiation in EMU

This case study will cover the analysis of all EMU arrangements except banking union that is mechanisms and practices of integration and coordination of fiscal macroeconomic and monetary policies in the EU Economic and Monetary Union EMU is often regarded as the paradigm of differentiated integration in the EU The main source of division comes from the fact that only 19 of the 28 Member States have exchanged their national currencies for the euro However differentiation covers multiple realities within EMU There are different degrees of cooperation and integration within EMU countries including full integration monetary policy intergovernmental arrangements European Stability Mechanism or hard and soft mechanisms of coordination Stability and Growth Pact European Semester The paper will assess the functioning of these different modes of cooperation and integration as well as existing proposals of further differentiation in the context of debates on deepening the EMU This case study will be conducted by EPC with contribution from CIDOB

Research Paper on the EU-UK partnership

The EPC will carry out an encompassing analysis of the features and implications of the Brexit process and output This will entail an assessment of the arrangements between the EU and the UK in terms of their normative consistency with EU principles governance efficiency and democratic legitimacy In particular the implications of these arrangements for the EU Member States and for other forms of partnership between the EU and nonMember States will be addressed

Research Paper on philosophical foundations

This research paper prepared by the University of Groningen will somewhat depart from a traditional approach to the history of differentiation in order to investigate its historical antecedents within the history of European political thought with the aim of identifying as well as problematize its normative and philosophical bases The paper will be divided into two parts In the first one it will turn to both likely and unlikely candidates for theorizing and justifying European supranational democracy and governance and implicitly or explicitly models of differentiated integration Hannah Arendt and Jrgen Habermas Reconstructing Arendts early arguments about the normative and political origins of vertical and horizontal European democracy as well as her agentcentered notions of democratic participation and willformation opens the conceptual space for a variety of models of differentiated European integration In recent years Habermas who is like Arendt also an ardent supporter of European post and supranational democracy has theoretically experimented with and provides justification for differentiated dual track systems of European integration In the second part conceptual and normative problems with these models and their potential contradictions and limitations will be systematically explored and discussed Models of differentiated integration while potentially increasing democratic legitimacy and making citizens support among core members more robust risk to increase divisions within Europe two classes of states and may put European integration as a whole at risk On this basis in a third step the paper will develop exploratory models of differentiated European integration reflecting on questions of individual and national membership inclusionexclusion the public realm conditions of political participationdeliberative democracy and democratic legitimacy

Research Paper on historical context

Following a traditional historiographic approach, this research paper will look at the history of differentiation as it has so far been applied to European integration, with the aim to draw causal dynamics and lessons from it. Within this broad area, the paper will focus particularly on the notion of “crisis”, defined broadly to include its social, political, and institutional aspects. Building on the simple observation that it is in times of difficulties that the idea of differentiation is often invoked in Europe, the paper will start by asking whether differentiation has provided viable and durable solutions to the continent’s problems and institutional impasse. This causal connection will, however, also be turned upside down in the paper by exploring whether differentiation can itself be seen also as a cause of crisis under certain circumstances. If so, how can the two aspects of the differentiation/crisis relationship be reconciled? To answer these questions, the paper will look at a number of cases

Data set on political opinion on differentiation as policy choice

The interviews will be conducted by the EU IDEAs consortium in the respective country in the respective language with the exception of Ukraine where interviews will be conducted by the IEPs local team whose researchers have expertise on Ukraine and speak the language Besides three standard sets of questions applicable to the Member States the UK and the external countries under scrutiny particular questions pertinent to each country will also be prepared to capture the context of the country at stake During the interviews the research team will pursue a semistructured interview methodology which allows room for the interviewee to bring up issues she deems significant This is vital to our inquiry since it reveals not only the crucial questions at stake but also the broader outlook of the interviewees which may reveal key insights into each countrys political landscape Regarding the interviewees profile a prestudy will be made by the EU IDEA research teams to define the list of potential interviewees and the right method to approach them Wherever possible the interviews will be sensitive to incorporating political representatives of various societal segments youth womenmen minorities etc

Policy Brief on Brexit, ASFJ and migration

This policy paper will address the features of the future EUUK relationship in the key policy area of ASFJ and migration In particular it will address whether how and why this relationship differs from previous instances of EU partnership with third countries and explore the political and economic opportunities and challenges that this entails also for citizens and the private sector as relevant

Policy Brief on European defence cooperation

The policy brief D56 will examine forms of informal differentiated cooperation in the field of European defence In particular the paper reviews informal differentiated cooperation ie other than PESCO including minilateral defence cooperation task 53 External differentiation in the field of defence is also addressed task 54

Policy Paper on differentiation in the energy sector

The energy sector provides a variety of interesting practices and models of differentiated integration The EU28 energy policy largely applies to nonEU countries esp EEE members such as Norway and Energy Community members such as Ukraine Over the last ten years it has also seen the development of at least eight energy cooperation arrangements between groups of neighbouring Member States that often include nonEU Member States or ad hoc cooperation measures on one particular dossier eg gas interconnectors that expand beyond the EU limits Finally intense exchanges are happening at the local level between neighbouring regions as well as between cities ie Eurocities EnergyCities or most notably the Covenant of Mayors that face similar challenges This case study will be conducted by the IAI with a contribution from EPC

Policy Paper on differentiation and sub-national actors

This policy paper will review of the state of the art and elaborate an analytical framework for studying differentiation at the subnational level Classical definitions of differentiated integration miss cases of integration that escape the statecentric logicin the first place experiences initiated and conducted by subnational actors through the creation of transnational networks as venues and structures for soft governance in the form of fora for the exchanges of ideas policy learning exchange of best practices establishment of soft norms etc The analytical framework for studying subnational differentiated integration focuses onThe conceptualtheoretical examination of a the nature and functioning of networks as instances of differentiated integration their origins capacities achievements limitations both in terms of governance innovation and efficiency and in terms of their politicaldemocratic legitimacy b the formal and informal links between network governance and differentiated integration more traditionally defined networks as pioneers of later Statedriven integration experiments as mitigation for the effects of differentiated integration for excluded countries by providing them with an alternative entry points into supranational arrangements and c the identification of causal mechanisms esp institutional and ideationaldiscursive dynamics structuring this interplay andAn empirical exploratory examination of a number of networks including local government networks and selected other nonterritorially based types of networks such as corporatist professional or civil society networks in order to probe the analytical framework for subsequent applications in WPs 456

Policy Paper on Police cooperation

Since 1999 Europol has gone from a hub facilitating intergovernmental cooperation between EU Member States to a fullyfledged EU agency During this period the agency has been a paradigm for different models of cooperation and an area where countries integrate at a different speed The new regulation adopted in 2016 increased Europols powers but also allowed the European Parliament to exercise greater scrutiny In this framework Member States are positioning themselves in 2015 the Danes voted to leave the agency the UK will also need to find ways to stay closely associated

Communication, Dissemination and Exploitation Action Plan (CDEAP)

WP 10 will start by drafting a CDEAP to be presented and discussed during the kick-off meeting and shared in its final version few weeks after it. The CDEAP will describe a strategy to create and ensure external visibility to the project, disseminate products and exploit results. The plan will include a detailed analysis of the expected impacts among the different audiences (see Section 2.2), with the aim to target them through different modalities of communication and dissemination. Firstly, the CDEAP will describe the communication strategies that EU IDEA will implement in its outreach to all the EU and national institutions and stakeholders concerned. Secondly, among the project’s audiences, the CDEAP will identify specific networks or groups of people to reach. The CDEAP will specify timing, products, and channels for the dissemination of any deliverable of the project. Thirdly, the CDEAP will assign and coordinate the activities that each partner institution might be able to launch and conduct to suppo

Policy Paper on internal and external differentiation in enlargement and neighbourhood

Assess the external differentiation embedded in the various forms of cooperation and association between the EU and nonEU countries that may or may not include internal differentiation and discuss its effectiveness and sustainability The contexts under assessment are i EUs next envisaged enlargement phase concerning Serbia and Montenegro ii EUs Eastern neighbourhood most notably free trade agreements including political association and iii EUs relations with Turkey and the UK

EU IDEA gender guidelines

The gender guidelines are intended as an additional tool to ensure the implementation of a gender sensitive approach across the projects research communication dissemination and exploitation products

Policy Paper on external differentiation in the access to the single market

Brexit has led to increasing attention to the question of differentiated access of third countries to the single market There are indeed different regimes of third countrys participation in the single market from the institutional arrangements and practices for EEA countries or the Swiss bilateral approach to more detached forms of cooperation such as customs union or comprehensive Free Trade Agreements This paper will assess and compare these different modes of integration paying particular attention to their effectiveness sustainability and perceived legitimacy This case study will be conducted by the JDI

Policy Paper on European Asylum system

The evident lack of cooperation among Member States for sharing the tasks and costs associated with the management of refugee crisis in the last years have revealed clear deficiencies in the EU Important initiatives such as the refugees relocation system or the Common European asylum system reform make particularly interesting to analyse to what extend a differentiation among EU countries in this issue can have an impact over an effective cohesive and democratic Union

Policy Paper on differentiation in EU financial sector

The financial sector is an interesting case study for differentiation not only it has experimented a major integration leap with the establishment of the Banking Union but the exit of the UK poses major challenges for the financial regulation and supervision within the EU and its coordination with nonEU Member States The case study will analyse current institutional arrangements linked to the Banking Union single supervisory and resolution mechanisms as well as mechanisms for regulation and supervision of the EU financial system such as the supervisory authorities ESRB EBA ESMA and EIOPA and for the coordination of financial regulation and supervision between EU Member States and third countries This case study will be conducted by the JDI

Policy Paper on Intra-Schengen mobility

The Schengen free movement area is one of the EUs most symbolic and tangible achievements Yet its functioning is increasingly at risk as Member States have reintroduced and continue to uphold internal border controls since 2015 At the same time the Schengen area still does not encompass all of the EU Member States Differentiated dynamics and difficulties to apply relevant EU legislation in this area coherently are important for understanding the dynamics defining differentiated integration in the AFSJ generally speaking

Podcasts

To discuss topics related to the projects with EU IDEAs researchers and external experts 8 audio podcasts will be prepared and produced by WP 10 2 of which will be dedicated to WP 7 Podcasts of about 30 minutes will be an extremely useful tool to disseminate the data produced by EU IDEA They will be made available and spread through the expected dissemination channels and communication activities see Sections 225 229

Brexit video and visual award

EU IDEA will foresee a video and visual award on Brexit to be launched in the first semester of the project The rationale behind the contest is to tell and illustrate through artistic creations videos photos any type of visual artworks how people are experiencing the envisaged exit of the UK from the EU Creations can be accompanied by short written text and will be assessed by a jury composed by the members of the Executive Board of the project and two professionals in the field of visual arts The jury will nominate two winners to whom will be guaranteed a wide diffusion of their work through all the EU IDEA dissemination channels Furthermore the winning works will be awarded and presented publicly during the final conference of the project in Brussels The contest is aimed at people between 18 and 30 years old This type of contest shall aim to foster the engagement of youth which are interested by the European affairs in many ways but are not always properly and actively involved in the public debate On Brexit the youngsters standpoints and sentiments have been little covered despite these people will be in the mediumlong term the most affected by the major implications of the process The Brexit video and visual award would like to give a contribution in filling this gap by supporting the engagement of young people through the art

Videos

WP 10 will design and realise two types of videos the first one with projects researchers explaining their findings and enriched with infographics and images WPs 19 and a second type with music images and text in overlay to be disseminated mainly through social networks particularly on social media to present a particular topic WPs 48 All videos will be used as an introduction to the different deliverables in the project to which they will be directly linked For each type WP 10 will produce 7 videos 14 in total of which 4 videos will be dedicated to WP 7

Infographics

To show and resume findings and insights related to the project WP 10 will provide at least 8 infographics 2 of which will be dedicated to WP 7 which will be made available and spread through the expected dissemination channels and communication activities see Sections 225 229

Publications

Political Differentiation as the End of Political Unity? A Narrative Analysis

Auteurs: Funda Tekin; Vittoria Meissner
Publié dans: The International Spectator, 57:1, 2022, Page(s) 72-89, ISSN 0393-2729
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2022.2018823

The Politics of EU Differentiated Integration: Between Crises and Dilemmas

Auteurs: Marco Brunazzo
Publié dans: The International Spectator, 57:1, 2022, Page(s) 18-34, ISSN 0393-2729
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2022.2014103

Differentiation and EU Governance: Key Elements and Impact

Auteurs: Nicoletta Pirozzi and Matteo Bonomi
Publié dans: The International Spectator, 57:1, 2022, Page(s) 160-178, ISSN 0393-2729
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2022.2034361

Challenges and Opportunities

Auteurs: Stefan Couperus; Pier Domenico Tortola
Publié dans: The International Spectator, 57:1, 2022, Page(s) 54-71, ISSN 0393-2729
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2022.2011140

Governance, Effectiveness and Legitimacy in Differentiated Integration: An Analytical Framework

Auteurs: Sandra Lavenex and Ivo Križić
Publié dans: The International Spectator, 57:1, 2022, Page(s) 35-53, ISSN 0393-2729
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2022.2035529

Differentiation and De-Differentiation in EU Border Controls, Asylum and Police Cooperation

Auteurs: Emmanuel Comte and Sandra Lavenex
Publié dans: The International Spectator, 57:1, 2022, Page(s) 124-141, ISSN 0393-2729
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2022.2021011

Differentiated Cooperation in the EU’s Foreign and Security Policy: Effectiveness, Accountability, Legitimacy

Auteurs: Marco Siddi; Tyyne Karjalainen; Juha Jokela
Publié dans: The International Spectator, 57:1, 2022, Page(s) 107-123, ISSN 0393-2729
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2022.2026683

EU Boundaries in the making: functionalist versus federalist

Auteurs: Lavenex, Sandra, Križić, Ivo and Veuthey, Alexandre Maxime
Publié dans: Journal of European Public Policy, 28:3, 2021, Page(s) 427-446, ISSN 1350-1763
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/13501763.2021.1881586

Lead Groups in EU Foreign Policy: The Cases of Iran and Ukraine

Auteurs: Riccardo Alcaro and Marco Siddi
Publié dans: European Review of International Studies, 8:2, 2021, Page(s) 143–165, ISSN 2196-6923
Éditeur: Brill | Nijhoff
DOI: 10.1163/21967415-08020016

What Makes Economic Differentiation Effective? Insights from the EU Energy Sector, Banking Union and Third-Country Access to the Single Market

Auteurs: Andreas Eisl and Eulalia Rubio
Publié dans: The International Spectator, 57:1, 2022, Page(s) 90-106, ISSN 0393-2729
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2022.2033532

Brexit and the Trade and Cooperation Agreement: Implications for Internal and External EU Differentiation

Auteurs: Jannike Wachowiak and Fabian Zuleeg
Publié dans: The International Spectator, 57:1, 2022, Page(s) 142-159, ISSN 0393-2729
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2022.2030604

Governing Differentiation and Integration in the European Union: Patterns, Effectiveness and Legitimacy

Auteurs: Nicoletta Pirozzi and Matteo Bonomi
Publié dans: The International Spectator, 57:1, 2022, Page(s) 1-17, ISSN 0393-2729
Éditeur: Routledge
DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2022.2038424

Differentiation and the European Union's Foreign and Security Policy

Auteurs: Marco Siddi; Tyyne Karjalainen; Juha Jokela
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 9, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511260

Differentiated Integration and Accountability in the European Union – An Analytical Framework

Auteurs: Thu Nguyen
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 7, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511209

How Effective is Differentiation in the EU Economic Policy Field?

Auteurs: Andreas Eisl; Eulalia Rubio
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 8, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511231

" Brexit, the ""Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice"" and Migration "

Auteurs: Emmanuel Comte
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Briefs, 3, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6636068

Conceptualising differentiated integration: governance, effectiveness and legitimacy

Auteurs: Lavenex, Sandra; Križić, Ivo
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 2, 2019
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3688633

Brexit and External Differentiation in Single Market Access

Auteurs: Andreas Eisl; Eulalia Rubio
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Briefs, 1, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6635995

European Defence and PESCO: Don't Waste the Chance

Auteurs: Sven Biscop
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 1, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511527

Policy Recommendations for a Differentiated Union: Ensuring Effectiveness, Sustainability and Democracy

Auteurs: Nicoletta Pirozzi; Matteo Bonomi
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Briefs, 4, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6636076

Schengen under Pressure: Differentiation or Disintegration?

Auteurs: De Somer, Marie; Tekin, Funda; Meissner, Vittoria
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 7, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6642096

Uniformity and Differentiation in the Fundamentals of EU Membership: The EU Rule of Law Acquis in the Pre- and Post-accession Contexts

Auteurs: Ivan Damjanovski; Christophe Hillion; Denis Preshova
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 4, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511137

Important Projects of Common European Interest (IPCEIs) as a New Form of Differentiation: An Analysis of Their Challenges for the European Single Market

Auteurs: Eisl, Andreas
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 18, 2022
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6645359

The European Asylum System: A Necessary Case of Differentiation

Auteurs: Emmanuel Comte
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 3, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511573

External Differentiation in Migration: Boosting or Hollowing Out the Common EU Policy?

Auteurs: Okyay, Asli Selin; Lavenex, Sandra; Križić, Ivo; Aydın-Düzgit, Senem
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 10, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6642279

How Does Differentiated Integration Work in the EU Financial Sector? Spotlight on Banking Union

Auteurs: Sebastian Mack
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 4, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511579

How Does Identity Relate to Attitudes Towards Differentiation? The Cases of France, Germany, Czech Republic and Turkey

Auteurs: Aydın Düzgit, Senem; Kovar, Jan; Kratochvil, Petr
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 6, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511183

Differentiation in ASEAN, ECOWAS and MERCOSUR: A Comparative Analysis

Auteurs: Gaens, Bart; Venturi, Bernardo; Ayuso, Anna
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 6, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6642072

The Role of Differentiation in EU Foreign, Security and Defence Policy Cooperation with Neighbouring Countries

Auteurs: Aydın-Düzgit, Senem; Bond, Ian; Scazzieri, Luigi
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 14, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6645275

External Differentiated Integration in Justice and Home Affairs: Participation of the Western Balkan Countries in EU Agencies

Auteurs: Damjanovski, Ivan; Nechev, Zoran
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 20, 2022
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6645557

Differentiated Integration in the EMU: Impact on Policy Effectiveness and Political Unity

Auteurs: Marta Pilati; Francesco De Angelis
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 2, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511561

Differentiated Integration and EU Outsiders: A Norwegian View

Auteurs: Græger, Nina; Haugevik, Kristin
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 19, 2022
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6645516

Europol and Differentiated Integration

Auteurs: Mortera-Martínez, Camino; Nechev, Zoran; Damjanovski, Ivan
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 13, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6645241

" A Differentiated ""Dual Track"" European Union as a Remedy in Times of Crisis? Debating Habermas, Arendt, and the Theoretical Foundations of Graduated European Integration "

Auteurs: Lars Rensmann
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 5, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511156

Differentiated Integration in the Energy Sector and Its Contribution to the European Goals of Affordability, Security of Supply and Sustainability

Auteurs: Franza, Luca; Sánchez Margalef, Héctor; Bianchi, Margherita
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 12, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6645222

Differentiated Integration as a Conscious Policy Choice: The Way Forward

Auteurs: Meissner, Vittoria; Tekin, Funda
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 17, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6645338

Differentiation in EU Foreign and Security Policy: EU Lead Groups in the Iranian Nuclear Dispute and the Ukraine Crisis

Auteurs: Alcaro, Riccardo; Siddi, Marco
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 11, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6645179

The Impact of Differentiation on EU Governance: Effectiveness, Sustainability and Accountability

Auteurs: Nicoletta Pirozzi; Matteo Bonomi
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 12, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511457

The EU–UK Partnership and Implications for Differentiation Within the EU and Between the EU and Third Countries

Auteurs: Jannike Wachowiak; Fabian Zuleeg
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 10, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511271

Public Opinion on an Ever More Differentiated EU

Auteurs: Stahl, Anna
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 15, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6645288

Narratives of Political Unity in Times of Differentiation

Auteurs: Tekin, Funda; Meissner, Vittoria; Müller, Nils Fabian
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 3, 2019
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3688668

External Differentiation in Access to the Single Market: Effectiveness, Accountability and Political Unity

Auteurs: Eisl, Andreas
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 9, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6642247

Flexible Defence Cooperation in Europe: FNC, JEF and EI2

Auteurs: Iso-Markku, Tuomas; Karjalainen, Tyyne
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Briefs, 6, 2022
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6638902

Differentiated Cooperation in European Foreign Policy: The Challenge of Coherence

Auteurs: Giovanni Grevi; Pol Morillas; Eduard Soler i Lecha; Marco Zeiss
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 5, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511612

Brexit and External Differentiation in Foreign, Security and Defence Policy

Auteurs: Ian Bond
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Briefs, 2, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6636025

The Evolution of EU Differentiated Integration between Crises and Dilemmas

Auteurs: Brunazzo, Marco
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 1, 2019
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3688564

Informal Differentiated Integration in EU Foreign and Security Policy: Perspectives of a Small Member State

Auteurs: Jan Kovář; Kateřina Kočí
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Briefs, 5, 2022
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6636096

Differentiation from Below: Sub-national Authority Networks as a Form of Differentiated Cooperation

Auteurs: Tortola, Pier Domenico; Couperus, Stefan
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 8, 2020
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6642235

Differentiated EUrope 2035: Elaboration and Evaluation of Five Potential Scenarios

Auteurs: Emmanouilidis, Janis A.
Publié dans: EU IDEA Policy Papers, 16, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6645315

EU Differentiation in Border, Asylum and Police Cooperation: Drivers, Effectiveness and Crisis

Auteurs: Emmanuel Comte; Sandra Lavenex
Publié dans: EU IDEA Research Papers, 11, 2021
Éditeur: Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6511289

Ensemble de données