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Modelling Of Whole-brain Slow oscillatory dynamics in physiology and pathology

Descrizione del progetto

Modellazione delle dinamiche cerebrali

I circuiti neuronali nel cervello si interconnettono con altre regioni per formare grandi reti neuronali che si scambiano informazioni dinamiche, portando alla complessità funzionale del cervello. Nonostante i progressi tecnici, le tecniche neurofisiologiche possono misurare l’attività cerebrale localizzata, ma non quella globale. Per far luce sull’organizzazione funzionale multilivello del cervello e sulla sua associazione con la funzione cerebrale, il progetto MoWS, finanziato dall’UE, prevede di sviluppare il primo modello di oscillazioni lente del cervello intero che regolano la plasticità sinaptica, il consolidamento della memoria e l’elaborazione sensoriale. Lo strumento di calcolo generato non solo farà progredire la nostra comprensione della fisiologia delle oscillazioni cerebrali, ma avrà anche un impatto sulla diagnosi e la terapia dei disturbi dello spettro autistico.

Obiettivo

The brain is a complex system whose function relies on a dynamic information exchange between trillions of neural connections organised hierarchically: local neuronal circuits are interconnected to form large-scale functional networks spanning several brain areas. Neural oscillations are the result of this multilevel interaction and regulate vital processes, from sleep to attention. Neurophysiological techniques, such as electrophysiological recordings or brain imaging, can only investigate separately the micro- and macro-circuits that, together, generate global activity patterns. To date, despite significant recent technical advancements, the causal roles between local and global brain activity, and between global dynamics and overall brain function, remain largely unknown. In this context, complementary computational approaches can dramatically improve the understanding of the multilevel functional organization of the brain. This project aims to develop the first model of whole-brain slow oscillations based on the integration of multi-scale neural activity. Slow neural oscillations (<1Hz) regulate key functions such as synaptic plasticity, memory consolidation and sensory processing. Moreover, abnormalities in this brain rhythm have been linked to the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders. The novelty of my model lays in three aspects. It will include pyramidal neurons, parvalbumin interneurons and somatostatin interneurons, following on the experimental results defining their differential roles in regulating slow waves; it will be based on the integration of multi-scale experimental data acquired in-house (local field potential recordings and fMRI); it will be used to model the slow dynamics alterations occurring in genetically defined autistic-like disorders. This solid and highly credible computational tool will advance our understanding of the physiology of brain oscillations and will potentially impact the diagnostic and therapeutic paths for autism.

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Coordinatore

FONDAZIONE ISTITUTO ITALIANO DI TECNOLOGIA
Contribution nette de l'UE
€ 183 473,28
Indirizzo
Via morego 30
16163 Genova
Italia

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Regione
Nord-Ovest Liguria Genova
Tipo di attività
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