Final Report Summary - TEACH (Technologies and Tools to prioritize assessment and diagnosis of air pollution impact on immovable and movable Cultural Heritage)
Most buildings of cultural interest are located in urban environments, where the pollution caused by traffic, domestic heating and industrial activities have harmful consequences on marble, bricks, stones, plaster, creating black and damage layers, due to the depositing of gas and particles which are very difficult to remove and are particularly dangerous for the integrity of the surfaces. The present day scenario available on the European and world-wide levels indicates that the emissions produced in the industrial and civil sectors and in transport constitute or will constitute a serious danger for the cultural heritage in terms of phenomena of corrosion and blackening. The high costs of preventive conservation and maintenance of the cultural heritage therefore require urgent measures, starting from the identification of the future changes in the composition of the atmosphere following the emissions as well as the incisiveness that the multi pollutants emitted will have in favouring the process of damage, in order to safeguard the sustainable protection of the cultural heritage itself.
TeACH is a multidisciplinary project that aims:
- to improve methods of quantification for more accurate damage assessment, diagnosis and monitoring of the moveable and immoveable Cultural Heritage;
- to build devices and tools for detecting and monitoring the damage on various treated and untreated cultural heritage materials, taking into account changing trends in pollution compounds and concentrations predicted in the near and far future.
Project Context and Objectives:
The idea at the base of the project is that the pollutants responsible for the damage of Cultural Heritage are changing and will continue to change in the future. This change needs to be monitored and its effects controlled by means of new and appropriate devices and tools.
The main object of TeACH Project can be summarized as follows:
1. to provide an advance to the state of the art, giving first a future vision of the oncoming damage of Cultural Heritage, identifying the pollutants that will play the most important role in the future;
2. to develop a simple, economical, compact kit comprising existing and new devices, as a basic instrument for monitoring the overall damage of Cultural Heritage;
3. to produce a new tool that can correlate the changing damage patterns outdoor with the likely damage to cultural materials indoor.
The objectives related to each Work Package are reported hereunder:
WP2 Prediction of the pollutants in the changing near and future scenario & prioritization of the most important ones for protection of movable and immovable CH and effects on materials:
- To identify the most important pollutants and parameters and microclimatic variables currently affecting the Cultural Heritage, both movable and immovable;
- To predict the most important pollutants and parameters for the conservation of Cultural Heritage and their changes in the near and far future;
- To prioritize the most important pollutants and parameters for the preventive conservation and maintenance of immovable Cultural Heritage;
- To prioritize the most important pollutants and parameters for the preventive conservation and maintenance of movable Cultural Heritage.
WP3 Effects of predicted pollution on treatments:
- To perform an assessment of the effects of predicted major pollutants on outdoor treatments (anti-graffiti, water repellent protective coatings and consolidants) commonly used in the conservation of built heritage;
- To perform an assessment of degradation of paper as a typical indoor organic material under the synergistic effect of physical and chemical environmental factors;
- To carry out weathering tests to predict the degradation under different environmental conditions.
WP4 Study of identified existing devices and their evaluation for integration in the kit:
- To study the existing devices and technologies able to measure the main environmental parameters (chemical, physical and biological) affecting indoor and outdoor Cultural Heritage, which were developed within past Framework Programmes of the European Union and/or currently present in the market;
- To identify the necessary modifications and/or improvements to be introduced in the compact, economical and user-friendly kit that will monitor the outdoor weathering of Cultural Heritage.
WP5 Construction of a new device and a cheap kit including the improved existing sensors for the environmental control:
- To construct a new, compact, non-invasive and low cost device to measure the global effects of pollutants deposition on an outdoor surface;
- To construct with this device and other sensors a compact, low cost and user-friendly kit for outdoor monitoring of the environment;
- To construct for indoor measurements, a new compact soiling and dust dosimeter based on soiling/ dust deposition on glass substrates and subsequent photo-spectroscopic measurements;
- To interface the output from the devices with a common hardware suitable for in situ and remote data transmission being developed in work package 6;
- To test and improve the new devices during and after their experimentation in the field.
WP6 Software and Services Development for in loco and remote control:
- To design the storage infrastructure for the in situ and remote monitoring tool to store data collected;
- To implement the transport system for the data, from the sensors to the central database;
- To develop the web-based monitoring tool, a web interface to interact with the system.
WP7 Application and instrumental validation in field tests:
- To perform field tests, monitoring the environmental conditions in terms of pollutants and climatic parameters and studying their influence on the stone surface in terms of colour change and damage layer formation. The field tests were performed at six selected sites in Europe and Mediterranean Basin representative of different climate zones and environmental situations in urban contexts:
National Gallery in Oslo (Norway);
Opera del Duomo Museum in Florence (Italy);
Cathedral in Cologne (Germany);
Arriaga Theatre in Bilbao (Spain);
National Museum in Krakow (Poland);
Bur? al Kl?b Tower in Salé (Morocco).
- To validate the kit, by using results of the environmental monitoring and performing additional colorimetric measurements of the stone surface. The kit was installed and tested at three locations, in Florence, Cologne and Bilbao.
- To carry out chemical analysis of the collected samples of particulate, gaseous and volatile pollutants, as well as black crusts in laboratory;
- To store the data, discuss and compare the results. This allowed assessing an influence of the air quality on physical and chemical changes occurring on the surface of stone monuments.
WP8 Modelling of indoor environmental conditions influencing the future damage of moveable and immovable CH:
- To produce a strategy for the diagnosis of unacceptable indoor environments;
- To calibrate the results readings from the MASTER EWO-G dosimeter against observed effects on inorganic materials;
- To make tests and develop the EWO dosimeter to include dust and soiling;
- To perform field tests of the EWO-G necessary to evaluate its use in the strategy and its further development.
WP9 Guidelines for the future prioritization of air pollution monitoring, dissemination, marketing, economic evaluation and exploitation:
- To define guidelines for air pollution monitoring in preventive conservation of Cultural Heritage;
- To define scenarios for evaluating the effects of air pollution on Cultural Heritage (movable and immovable);
- To define scenarios for evaluating the response to the environmental and pollution conditions of the heritage itself as well as the performances of the conservation actions;
- To identify preventive measures useful to policy makers and conservators to control the effects of compounds and variables most important in the near and far future environment and climate change;
- To perform economic near and far future evaluation;
- To undertake dissemination and training for end users and stakeholders operating and involved in air pollution monitoring and in conservation of Cultural Heritage;
- To prepare a plan for the exploitation of the results.
The starting point of the TeACH project was the prioritization of the most important pollutants and environmental parameters threatening Cultural Heritage, on the basis of the existing knowledge about adverse effects, materials at risk and observable levels in heritage locations. In fact, the damage observed on cultural heritage objects depends partly on the environment, including pollutants and climate parameters acting in synergy, and partly on the material the object is made from.
As a first step, a selection of materials was made suitable to be studied in the project. The research work centred on marble, limestone, sandstone, brick/ceramic, lime and hydraulic mortar, cement mortar and concrete.
Then a selection of pollutants and microclimate parameters, and their prioritization in relation to cultural heritage damage, both movable and immovable, was made. Considering the scope and the consistency of the project, the main attention focus was on four processes leading to damage of immovable cultural heritage: soiling and black crust formation, surface recession, bio deterioration and salt crystallization.
The work of identifying the climate and pollution parameters involved in the damage processes on immovable and movable heritage, is summarized in Table 1 (see attached PDF).
The research study has evaluated the changes in outdoor air quality within predicted future scenarios. The projections for SO2, HNO3 and O3 developed for 2020 and 2085 as part of the Noah’s Ark project confirm an overall reduction in pollutants. These predictions have to be balanced with a degree of realism, bearing in mind the likely scenarios of SO2, HNO3, and O3 in a well regulated Europe. SO2 is predicted to decrease and to become less important for black crust formation and metal corrosion. As well as for NO2, a precursor to the very corrosive gas HNO3, a reduction in concentration should in itself lead to reduced corrosion. Even if the projections of air pollutants developed as part of the Noah’s Ark Project forecasted a general reduction in Europe, pollutant variations, in particular those related to NOx and O3, need to be monitored.
Concerning carbon compounds, data obtained from analyses of black crusts collected at monuments in several European cities demonstrate that organic carbon (OC) predominates in general over the EC one. This prevalence is particularly evident in the damage layers collected from sides of monument exposed directly to air pollution due to traffic. In addition, past studies have demonstrated that today’s traffic emits carbonaceous particles mostly in the fine fraction and composed of organic carbon (OC). Thus, because of the proven overwhelming influence of traffic in determining the future urban atmosphere, “modern’’ soiling on built heritage will most probably contain primarily OC. The higher concentration of OC in the particulate matter deposited on the building surfaces, with respect to EC, will imply a change in colour of damage layers, which will presumably assume a yellow-brown colour. A less phytotoxic environment, due to the decrease of SO2, and the increased concentration of organic compounds (nutrients) can enhance biological activity and, consequently, the accumulation of biomass on monuments.
Furthermore, the most important parameters related to the damage processes affecting the immovable cultural heritage located outdoors have been prioritized as follows:
? water derived parameters: amount of rain, relative humidity (mean), relative humidity cycles;
? temperature derived parameters: temperature (mean);
? pollution derived parameters: SO2, HNO3, NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5 carbon fractions of PM (EC and OC), soluble salt fraction of PM (SO42-, SO32-, NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, Br-, HPO42-, CHO2-, C2H3O2- , C2O42-), VOCs (acetic and formic acid); total elemental metal content in PM.
In addition to that, NOX, O3, SO2 and particulate matter (PM) are the main pollutants generated outdoors needing to be prioritized for the preventive conservation of the movable cultural heritage. These pollutants have degrading effects on both organic and inorganic materials. In addition one should be aware of the effects of H2S and chlorides (Cl-). These are important degradation agents, but are usually present indoors only at low levels. The most important degrading pollutants with (usually) indoor sources are acetic and formic acid. Materials such as metals and some pigments are highly sensitive to high concentrations of these internally generated pollutants. The degradation rate increases at high relative humidity. In addition, particles/dust, generated indoors, are important pollutants and their chemical analysis is fundamental for the evaluation of risk for objects of art.
The effects of these predicted major pollutants and environmental parameters were assessed in field tests: with common coatings used in heritage conservation on typical outdoor materials, as well as on historic paper materials relevant to collections in museums and archives.
With regard to outdoor conservation treatments a specific experiment for the investigation on degradation of common surface treatments used in cultural heritage conservation was designed. The selected treatments were: 1 consolidant, 1 anti-graffiti and 1 water repellent, which were applied onto 3 different types of substrates (1 limestone, 1 calcareous sandstone and 1 marble) and exposed outdoors in the 6 case studies of the TeACH project (Figure 1), i.e. in 6 differently polluted environments and with different climates. Monitoring of environmental parameters and changes of treatments by measuring colour parameters (L*, a*, b*) and contact angle were performed to study the changes of the surface treatments in the different environments
A similar test was also carried on a number historic paper samples, which were exposed outdoors in the TeACH case study sites plus 11 additional environments, to assure sufficient variation and combinations of agents of deterioration (Figure 1, see attached PDF). A complex multi-site paper degradation experiment was carried out by varying the environmental parameters and simultaneous measurement of temperature, relative humidity (RH), visible light and traffic-generated pollutant concentrations (nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone), while also following the degradation of paper using colorimetry and viscometry.
Concerning the behaviour of stone treatments, the following main conclusions were drawn:
? After 12 months of exposure each of the studied surface treatments showed a different behaviour with regard to colour and contact angle change which depended on the substrate where it was applied, and mainly on its porosity and pore size distribution;
? Among the samples exposed in the different case studies, some general trends were observed, for example, in rainy and polluted case studies (Cologne, Bilbao) or in the case studies with high sun exposure (Bilbao, Salé);
? In order to understand which variables could have greater influence on the variation of the parameters measured on the stone samples, multivariate analysis was performed with the variation of the parameters measured on the stone samples (L*, a*, b*, total colour difference and contact angle) and the following physical parameters: average temperature, light, rainfall, NO2, SO2, O3. The results show that each type of treatment must be studied individually, since its behaviour varies importantly depending on the material where it is applied;
For the first time, synergistic effects of the environment were studied on the degradation of historic paper. It was effectively shown that:
? The change of colour (yellowing) depends strongly on the paper composition: for optical brightener containing papers, T, O3 and NO2 are significant agents of deterioration, while for non-optical brightener containing papers, NO2 is the crucial agent of deterioration.
? Thanks to the use of scenario modelling techniques, it could be shown that very small variations in pollution can lead to doubling the rates of yellowing in indoor environments.
? The developed dose-response function will be extended to include changes in degree of polymerisation, and different methods of data analysis will be explored in future investigations.
This innovative approach allows for prioritising actions to be taken in terms of indoor pollution mitigation in historic paper collections environments (e.g. museums and archives) and has important implications for display and storage of historic papers, particularly where aesthetic values are of importance and where changes in colour might be seen as particularly negative.
Associated to the study of the effect of the prioritized environmental parameters on the heritage materials, an analysis of the instrumentation, devices and technologies for the measurement of climate parameters and environmental effects affecting immovable and movable Cultural Heritage was performed in order to select the instruments to be included in the kit as well as the identification of the modifications to be done. The research focused both on the instrumentation currently available in the market and also as a result of the past FP5/FP6 projects related to Cultural Heritage. General information on each product / prototype such as the type of instrument / technology, material to be studied, measured parameter and measuring method or technique, etc. was provided so as to have a general overview of the products / prototypes currently available and which could be used as references in the creation of the kit.
Firstly, 18 different instruments/devices/technologies were selected from the past 5th and 6th Framework Programmes. Regarding the current market products it was concluded that there are not many products for specific application in Cultural Heritage and most of them mention “field application/site application” or similar. Moreover, scarce information has been found on products for monitoring of some of the pollutants. On the contrary, for the measurement of the climatic and microclimatic parameters, the market offers a great deal of products with different technical features and costs.
Secondly, a definition of the criteria for the selection of the instrumentation was carried out, taking into account the parameters previously identified and the following general requisites: monitoring in situ (outdoor) and continuous; application to stone and mortars; small dimensions to reduce the environmental and aesthetic impact; low cost.
Considering these criteria, 4 prototypes were firstly chosen among the 18 instruments selected: the first detects surface condensation (dew sensor, Figure 2, see attached PDF), the second monitors cyanobacterial biofilms, the other two being IT tools able to predict concentrations of pollutants or to assess the loss of material, the deposition of crust and the money needed for maintenance of cultural heritage buildings.
Finally, only few devices were identified as useful to be included in the kit, , considering the disadvantages of the rest of the prototypes. Only 1 prototype, the dew sensor, and devices for the measurement of T air, T contact, RH, total and visible light from the products currently available in the market have been finally selected.
Starting from the previous information, from the technological point of view an innovative kit was built including not only the identified existing instruments, but also a new compact and low cost instrument to measure the effects of pollutant deposition in terms of blackening and yellowing. The development of this new instrument started with an analysis of the technical choices. Colorimeters, the technology originally selected for colour measurements, was compared with spectrophotometers. Components were purchased and tested to verify the set up and the conditions under which respectively a colorimeter and a spectrophotometer could be developed and realized. A cost analysis of the set up was made and led to the choice of the colorimeter since the need for a low cost device was explicitly stated as one of the key objectives of this development.
Subsequently, the new device was realized by mounting a packaged colorimeter, manufactured by Texas Advanced Optic Solutions, onto a mechanical arm.
The device needed to be mounted on a mechanical arm to position the measuring head with precision on the surface (always on the same place and with the measuring head gasket pressed against the stone surface to avoid entrance of daylight during the measurement) and this only at the time of the measurement. The rest of the time the surface needs to be free to allow the pollutants to reach the surface.
An additional challenge for this mechanical arm was the requirement to withstand severe weather conditions like snow, rain, wind and temperatures below zero in winter as well as high temperatures in summer. In fact, the device had to be installed outdoors, 20 meters high on the façade of the Cologne Cathedral as well as on the façade of buildings in Firenze and Bilbao. Consequently, a more robust execution was realized to ensure the reliability of the mechanical movements during the field tests.
The colorimeter with its moving piston was also enclosed in a metal housing. The requirement of compactness and user-friendliness did have to give in somewhat for the sake of reliability. But, given the experience in the field, possibilities will be available to improve the prototypes at a later stage for industrial applications.
The mechanical arm was equipped with an encoder. This solution was chosen to ensure that the colorimeter would be positioned exactly on and seal off the surface being monitored by adjusting the travelling distance of the sensor from the rest position to the measuring position.
Before measuring, a calibration of the device is necessary as the temperature and the age may change the intensity and spectrum of the light source consisting of two white LED’s. For this purpose, the housing was closed with a slide gate, a sort of shutter door, which opens every time a measurement has to be made. At the back of this slide gate, a white calibration patch has been installed. Before each measurement, the device moves to the back of the slide gate and measures total light, Red, Green and Blue values with and without the light source on. By doing so, the 0 % and the 100 % values of the measurement are set. Again the encoder is ensuring that the sensor is properly positioned against the calibration patch. Then the slide gate opens and the measuring head, after having been moved to the surface, measures again total light, Red, Green and Blue of the surface with and without the light source on.
The colorimeter supplies values of total light, Red, Green and Blue as frequencies. These frequencies need to be converted into usable values.
The measured data undergo multiple processing steps to respectively eliminate noise (measurements without light source on) and to normalize the total reflected values (measurements on white patch with light source on).
These RGB values are then converted into XYZ values using a conversion matrix. This matrix was obtained by measuring standardized colour patches with known XYZ values and subsequently calculating a conversion matrix.
Finally the XYZ values are transformed into L*a*b* values using transformation formula’s well defined in literature.
All of these operations are performed via a specifically developed spread sheet and confronted with the values obtained with the portable spectrophotometer from the same standardized colour patches. ?E‘s between the colorimeter and the spectrophotometer were in the order of 5 or below in the yellow colour range, the one of interest in this project.
During the field tests, the influence of seasonal temperature differences were observed when analysing the monitoring data and the respective calibrations in situ. A subsequent correction was made on the converted data and the results coincide quite well with the manual measurements on site with the spectrophotometer.
As previously said, to complete the kit for outdoor monitoring other existing instruments were added. Temperature and humidity are important parameters in the process of outdoor pollution next to the parameters being already measured during manual campaigns foreseen in the project. Hence, a surface contact temperature sensor (Pt100) and the dew sensor, developed and already used in another EU project (FP5 – VIDRIO), were integrated in the kit after some adaptations. A new wireless system measuring air temperature, humidity, visible and total light was also built, integrated in the kit and linked to an embedded computer acting via the Internet as gateway to the central database and the management software. Wireless sensors were not only installed outdoors, but also indoors in the area’s where the measurements of the manual campaigns have been done.
A specific system was designed and implemented for the in loco and remote control of kit : a continuous monitoring system giving the possibility to the final user to control the installed sensors and access to the data through a friendly interface from everywhere using Internet.
Firstly, some functional requirements and user cases were defined to establish functionalities and options for the end user. User cases are a valuable tool to capture and communicate functional requirements, and as such play a primary role in product definition. Furthermore, well thought out subsets derived from the primary user cases help in the architecture definition of each of the products from the original product design. They serve as guidance for the software engineers to ensure that the required functionality is supported, and they provide starting points for collaboration diagrams (or sequence diagrams) that are helpful in component interface design and architecture validation.
Secondly, a new list of non-functional requirements was delineated, in order to adequately choose the right software elements composing the final monitoring tool.
Once these requirements were decided, the technical architecture of the system and the technologies used (programming languages, database engine, etc.) were defined.
For the data storage and treatment, the first step was to define how the data is obtained from each sensor: data packet formats, their different operating modes and the different ways to return data to the system (Figure 3, see attached PDF); in this step, wired and wireless sensors were integrated in a common system.
Once the data to be handled were known, the storage process for the information was defined, implemented and tested. A description of the whole system from the point of view of storage was given: where the information can be stored; why the points of storage are used; what functionality is provided by these points and how the system uses them.
As the data obtained from the sensors are in an incomprehensible format for the users, transformations and data processing is needed to get the physical data the final user will use to for his studies. The transformations applied to the data have been defined and implemented.
Finally the web interface, allowing end users to get data measured by the sensors and stored in the system, was developed and implemented. The main features of the web tool are:
? Data exportation. The capability of data extraction according to search criteria specified by the user. The download format ( CVS ) is a common format, compatible with any kind of software usually available in personal computers.
? Data visualization. To look at the data or to check any parameter in particular, online data visualization in the web tool has been created. Two different types of data visualization have been implemented:
• Visualization in tables. Data are shown as is, like in the extraction format, in numeric tables.
• Visualization in graphs (Figure 4, see attached PDF). It is useful to have the possibility of making graphs to study in a more visual way the selected data.
? Sensor information. The user can check the location of the installed sensors in all the sites of the project in a real image of the building. The user can also move and replace the sensors over the photograph.
? Functions. The capability was developed to apply simple functions over data and see the results of those calculations, like the daily average, maximum and minimum of one sensor.
Three kits have been installed in the field in order to measure the above described parameters as part of the study on pollution, and also to provide feedback to improve the new device and the outdoor monitoring system.
Another new instrument for indoor monitoring was also developed, a new simple compact soiling and dust dosimeter.
The method was found to give consistent results with an increase in soiling or particle deposition but to have relatively low sensitivity compared to the measurement of dust deposition on glass slides. The spectrophotometry correlated only slightly with the results obtained by examination and analysis of particles deposited on glass slides and with the results obtained by passive samplers for the concentration of particles. Additional research is needed to correlate the results from the spectrophotometric measurements with parameters indicative of particle deposition, soiling or concentration of particles.
A plan to improve the technical devices was made based on the experiences in the field and the feedback from workshops and fairs. In addition further research to better determine the rate of blackening and yellowing, the degree of damage in function of time and subsequently the best moment of intervention is recommended together with an upgrade of the prototype. With one or more new pilots and with the support of additional research, the exploitation of this kit has a good possibility to be used in the future.
Six cities over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin were chosen for the field tests (Figure 5, see attached PDF) , with different environmental situations (continental or coastal site) and climatic zones (continental, temperate, Mediterranean climate, etc.), but all characterized by intense vehicle traffic: National Gallery in Oslo (Norway), Opera del Duomo Museum in Florence (Italy), Cathedral in Cologne (Germany), Arriaga Theatre in Bilbao (Spain), National Museum in Krakow (Poland) and Bur? al Kl?b Tower in Salé (Morocco).
The sampling campaigns were performed in the period between spring 2010 and winter 2011, and included a variety of measurements:
? indoor and outdoor climatic parameters (temperature, relative humidity), monitored continuously for a year using wireless sensors;
? particulate matter (PM, concentration and chemical composition), sampled indoors and outdoors in the summer of 2010 at all 6 locations and in the winter of 2010/11 at 3 of them (Florence, Cologne and Bilbao), by means of impactors allowing segregation of the particulate matter into different fractions (PM1, PM2.5 PM10);
? particle counts (number of particles per unit volume of air), sampled indoors and outdoors with use of air particle monitors in the summer of 2010;
? gaseous and volatile compounds (nitrogen dioxide NO2, sulphur dioxide SO2, ozone O3, formic and acetic acid, volatile organic compounds VOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde), sampled indoors and outdoors in each season of the year (between the summer of 2010 and the spring of 2011, except for VOCs and aldehydes, which were sampled only in the summer of 2010), using passive samplers (monitors in the case of VOCs);
? measurement of the photo oxidizing potential of the indoor atmospheres over three months by using the NILU EWO (Early Warning Organic) polymer dosimeter;
? damage layer of the stone surface (change of colour, chemical composition), sampled outdoors in the summer of 2010 at all 6 sites, by manually collecting black crusts;
? monitoring with the Kit, performed for a year at 3 sites: Florence, Cologne and Bilbao.
Results of the outdoor air quality analysis showed differences between the sites. The cleanest site was Oslo, with the average PM10 concentration 14 µg/m3. In Cologne, Bilbao, Krakow and Florence in the summer the values were found in the range 22-29 µg/m3 and the highest were found in Salé: 51 µg/m3 and in Florence in the winter: 54 µg/m3. Analysis of the chemical composition of the PM fractions allowed the identification of potential sources of air pollution and specific changes depending on the season. The coastal sites (Oslo, Bilbao and Salé) were characterised by large contributions of sea salt particles which apart from the soil dust were the main component of the PM10 fraction (the highest concentration of Na+ and Cl- were found in Salé and Bilbao). In Bilbao and Cologne, the outdoor pollution level during both summer and winter sampling campaigns was comparable for each site, as opposite to Florence where significant amounts of C-rich matter were revealed in the winter time. It may be explained by higher emissions from the domestic heating and possibly by occurrence of a temperature inversion layer, keeping all the pollution emitted from the low sources (vehicles, houses) in the ground layer. In Cologne, in both seasons, the concentrations of most of the indoor pollutants were twice as high as outdoors, therefore internal pollution sources were investigated. Since the major difference consisted in the carbon-rich fraction of particulate matter (organic carbon OC and elemental carbon EC), the most likely source was identified as candle burning and incense, commonly used during religious services. Other source could be the visitors, carrying particles on their shoes and clothing and causing resuspension of the dust. The results of particle counts were comparable to the trend of PM concentrations observed at all the sites.
The outdoor concentrations of NO2 and O3 showed seasonal variation (in the range 9-98 µg/m3 for NO2 and 12-73 µg/m3 for O3), while the values of SO2 were rather low throughout the year (the highest SO2 concentration was noted in the winter in Bilbao, 5.4 µg/m3). The indoor concentrations of SO2 and O3 were insignificant but the values for NO2 often exceeded those found outdoors. The indoor photo oxidizing potential, as measured by the NILU EWO, was found to be highest during summer in Oslo and during summer/autumn in Florence and Cologne, when it approached the typical indoor conditions in open large structures. The best condition was found in the National Museum of Krakow in the autumn, typical for a purpose built museum. The EWO measurement during summer/autumn in Bilbao and autumn and winter in Oslo showed typical conditions for a historic house museum. The concentrations of acetic and formic acid were measured higher indoors than outdoors at most of the experimental sites indicating presence of significant internal sources of organic acids. The acetic and formic acid indoor concentrations were generally lower than 130 ?g/m3 and 35 ?g/m3, respectively, except for Bilbao where high values might be the result of emissions from large amount of wood and textiles gathered inside the Arriaga Theatre. Additionally, in Bilbao, high VOCs values were found, while the concentrations at other sites were lower and at comparable level. Also the concentrations of aldehydes were similar at all investigated sites.
During the damage layer analysis, the highest ?L* (difference between lightness L* of damage layer and L* of reference material) was noted in the samples of Carrara marble from Florence (?L* = 57), trachyte and Schlaitdorfer sandstone from Cologne (?L* ? 50), quartz sandstone from Oslo and Obernkirchener sandstone from Cologne (?L* ? 40). A lower decrease in L* was observed in the samples of marmorino (lime mortar) in Bilbao and limestone from Krakow (?L* = 28). The smallest change was observed for the pink granite from Oslo, calcarenite from Salé and granite from Krakow (?L* = 24). A correlation was observed between decrease in luminosity and presence of EC which is linked to the deposition of particles, especially carbonaceous ones, changing the light reflectance of the surface. Considering parameter b* (related to the yellow-blue axis), an increase was observed only in the case of Carrara marble, indicating that the surface was subjected to yellowing, while in other materials a decrease was observed.
The ion analysis showed that the most abundant were sulphate (SO42-) and calcium (Ca2+), linked to the sulphation process, resulting in the formation of gypsum. The most abundant amounts of SO42- were found in the samples collected from Carrara marble in Florence and pink granite from Oslo. In general, Ca2+ followed the trend of SO42-, but it should be remembered that Ca2+ can have various origins: it may come from the substrate of carbonate stones; it may represent the Sahara dust, transported over long distances towards southern Europe or it can be linked to the resuspension of soil dust. In the case of Oslo and Krakow, its presence can be attributed to the use of de-icing salts in the winter. The third ion in order of concentration was nitrate (NO3-) Its highest concentrations were identified in samples from Salé, where dry environmental conditions and exposure to the traffic roads play an important role.
Total carbon (TC, carbonate carbon CC + non-carbonate carbon NCC) had the highest content in the marmorino sample from Bilbao. The second high value of TC was present in the limestone sample from Krakow. In general, the CC fraction was found in a range from 20% to 50% of TC. On the other hand, NCC fraction (composed of EC and OC) is closely related to atmospheric pollutants. EC is a tracer for combustion processes and it gives rise to surface blackening. OC may be linked to atmospheric deposition of primary and secondary pollutants, biological weathering or decay of protective organic treatments. EC was generally observed to follow the trend of TC, with the highest content in samples from lime mortar (Bilbao) and limestone (Krakow). Concerning OC and EC as percentage fractions of NCC, OC predominated over EC in samples from Florence and Salé, indicating vehicular exhaust as an important origin of the damage encountered at these sites. This was especially evident in Salé, where OC followed the trend of NO3-. In the case of samples from Krakow, EC predominated over OC, possibly indicating an influence of coal combustion products on the damage layer formation.
A comparative study of the results of both environmental monitoring and damage layer characterisation allowed finding certain similarities. Traces of the anthropogenic activity were revealed thanks to considerable amounts of SO42- and NO3- in both atmospheric aerosol and damage layer samples at all 6 sites. At the coastal sites, presence of marine particles in the PM fractions and the damage layer was very clear. The highest concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were found in Salé, Bilbao and Oslo in both sample types, showing a strong correlation. Exceptionally high Na+ and Cl- content in the damage layer in Krakow could be a result of using de-icing salts in the winter time. Other observations showing a correlation between the composition of aerosols and the damage layer was high concentration of iron in both sample types in Cologne, which could be related to the railway station located in the neighbourhood of the Cathedral. Moreover, the highest content of EC in aerosols and the damage layer was noted at the same site, in Bilbao.
As already mentioned, monitoring the microclimate in proximity of the surface of selected stone materials and its colour change with the new kit was an important part of the experimental work. The results from the kit were discussed, comparing the measurements performed with the new colorimeter incorporated in the kit to the ones done with a portable spectrophotometer, in order to verify the accuracy of the new instrument.
In Florence (Figure 6, see attached PDF), the measurements were carried out on a vertical Carrara marble plate; in Cologne, on a French limestone block; in Bilbao, on a yellowish limestone column.
A decrease of L* and at the same time an increase of b* in Florence and Cologne indicated that the surface was getting respectively darker and yellower. In Bilbao, a decrease of L* was evident but b* showed no significant change. The highest ?L* was observed in Cologne (?L* = 13.8) and the smallest in Florence (?L* = 2.5) with Bilbao being in the middle (?L* = 7.8).
The manual measurements with the spectrophotometer at all sites were generally in accordance with the Kit measurements: the colorimetric parameters in both cases showed similar trends and magnitude of change. In Florence, where the exposed stone surface was sheltered, the decrease of L* and the increase of b* was lower than at the other sites. ?b* in Bilbao was not noticeable due to the yellowish colour of the original stone, characterized from the beginning by a high value of b*.
A comparison with the results of the environmental monitoring allowed stating a correlation between the darkening of the stone surface and the pollution level. The concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 fraction, mainly responsible for the surface soiling, were found to be higher in Cologne than in Bilbao. This was in accordance with the results of colour change monitoring, where the value of ?L* was observed higher at Cologne Cathedral than at the Arriaga Theatre (Florence case study could not be directly compared because of the sheltered position).
The results obtained during the indoor monitoring performed within the project were integrated in a methodology for the diagnosis of museum environments for the preservation of cultural heritage objects.
The response of the EWO dosimeters developed within the EU MASTER project was investigated to understand the relevance of results obtained from its use for the evaluation of degradation risk for inorganic heritage objects
A measurement campaign was performed, based on measurements with the EWO dosimeters, exposed in parallel with Environmental Reactivity Coupons (ERC, copper and silver), other “NILU” copper coupons, lead and silver coupons.
The comparison of the results from the use of the EWO dosimeter and the coupons indicated significant differences in the sensitivity of the two types of dosimeters. The EWO dosimeter and the lead coupons were shown to be complementary dosimeters that were clearly sensitive to different parts of the environment.
The results obtained after the accelerated ageing experiments showed a correlation between EWO response and the weight gain of the NILU Cu-coupons, and that both dosimeters are sensitive to NO2. The lower weight gain of the NILU copper coupons in the field as compared to those subjected to accelerated aging in the laboratory, corresponded to lower response for the EWOs in the field test. However, no correlation could be found between the field test results for the EWO and the ERCs or other NILU copper coupons. Indoor concentrations of NO2 are generally much lower (? 0 - 20 ppb) than those used in the accelerated exposures (1 ppm) and other affecting pollutants, such as organic acids, would be present indoor. According to the EWO dosimeter results, the environment in the four locations, where ERCs (copper and silver) were also exposed, was acceptable for a “historic house museum or open indoor structure” whereas the ERCs indicate that the environment was “Extremely pure” or “Pure”.
These results can be explained by the environmental levels suggested for the two types of dosimeters. The EWO was developed to warn about risk for organic objects. The photo-oxidising effects that are measured by the EWO are considered to be more critical for the degradation of organic objects than inorganic objects. Other factors in the environment, such as acids, reduced sulphur and chloride, have a relatively larger effect on many inorganic materials such as metals and minerals. Thus, EWO measurements will give a less complete evaluation of the environmental risk for inorganic objects, than e.g. metal coupons.
However, the results show that, according to recommended levels suggested for the Purafil® metal coupons, photo-oxidizing effects up to the EWO-level of four, “open display” should not by itself be a problem for inorganic objects. Thus, only the measurement of very high EWO levels (> 4) signifies that inorganic materials may also be at risk. Lower measured EWO levels indicate that photo-oxidation is most probably not a risk to the inorganic objects, but other factors may still be, if they are present.
On the other hand it seems that evaluation based on measurements with the Purafil® metal coupons does not consider the risk for organic objects due to the photo-oxidizing atmosphere. The copper and silver coupons are particularly sensitive to sulphur compounds and chloride, besides the sensitivity to oxidation and to organic acids, as was shown by correlation with lead coupons. The use of the copper and silver coupons gives additional information about the degradation potential of such compounds.
It was shown that the EWO and copper have different environmental sensitivities and that the EWO cannot be used to evaluate the quality of the environment for inorganic cultural heritage objects similarly as copper. To better understand the differences in sensitivity for the EWO and copper some more detailed indoor dose-response field studies for the copper coupons would be needed. As the diverse generic dosimeters that are available still do not seem to evaluate the total environment and its degradation effects on all kinds of cultural heritage objects, it is recommended to apply dosimeters that are most relevant to the types of objects in a collection and / or apply several dosimeters.
A methodology for the diagnosis of indoor environments concerning the preservation of cultural heritage objects was developed based on general indoor environmental and preventive conservation knowledge, IMPACT modelling, EWO dosimetry and passive sampling of pollutant gases. Field tests with the EWO dosimeter were performed to further develop its use as part of the strategy. Different measurement and evaluation methods for the air quality for cultural heritage were described with a focus on those easily accessible (e.g. use of freeware software) and of low cost. Examples were presented to illustrate the methodology in a user friendly way.
The methodology suggests four phases of involvement, summarized in Figure 7 (see attached PDF):
1. Evaluation of the location, including basic aspects such as type of building, its ventilation characteristics, the geographical location and a description of the objects and materials
2. Screening and pre-Evaluation
Main points in the strategy are:
? The description of the building type and geographical location should be the first step in the diagnosis as it may establish important main parameters and/or factors to evaluate.
? Modelling tools and suitable instruments are accessible for screening and pre-evaluation before a measurement campaign, which can give additional information to the measurements.
? The general evaluation of the environment by dosimeters or “impact sensors” is recommended before performing measurements of specific parameters, as dosimeters are designed to measure effects similar to those observed on objects.
If results obtained from a generic evaluation of the environment by the use of dosimeters indicate poor IAQ for the preservation of cultural heritage assets, the measurement of single parameters (e.g. RH, acetic acid concentration, NO2 concentration) becomes highly relevant for the diagnosis of the indoor environment, and for the design of possible mitigation measures.
? Different methods and instruments are available to measure single environmental parameters, and the selection would depend on factors such as cost and available budget.
As part of the work with the strategy, the air quality for moveable indoor cultural heritage was modelled for three of the TeACH experimental sites: the National Gallery in Oslo (Norway), the National Museum in Krakow (Poland) and the Opera del Duomo Museum in Florence (Italy). Other examples illustrating the implementation of the strategy were presented.
Input to the modelling were the outdoor concentrations of pollutants, the indoor climate, and properties of the indoor locations such as room geometry, types of material surfaces and specifications of the mechanical ventilation systems when applicable (i.e. for mechanically ventilated buildings).
The modelling performed for the three TeACH test sites showed that:
? Seasonal differences in pollutant concentrations and fluxes to the indoor surfaces are very important factors to take into account when the diagnosis of indoor environments is performed for a naturally ventilated building.
? Several indoor materials were identified as the probable most significant sinks for the air pollutants. The highest deposition of NO2 and O3 was found to occur on the following materials:
• The soft wood floor of the National Gallery in Oslo (Norway);
• The plaster ceiling at the National Museum in Krakow (Poland);
• The painted walls and ceiling of the Opera del Duomo Museum in Florence (Italy).
All the results obtained within the TeACH project were used to draw up the Guidelines, an important dissemination tool to support the decision making in the conservation process focusing on the theme of the integration of air pollution assessment in a preventive conservation strategy and taking into account the main phases of the conservation process.
The formulation of the guidelines started at the early stage of the project and was introduced by the identification and characterization of stakeholders and end users such as conservators, heritage managers and policy makers in order to identify needs and relevant key-issue to be focused.
Content and structure of Guidelines for air pollution monitoring in preventive conservation of cultural heritage was implemented by ICIE and UCL under the supervision of the project coordinator according to the results provided by the progress of research activities.
Content outline was discussed in internal meetings, shared with stakeholders and presented in public at the TeACH National Workshops held in Florence - “Preventive conservation of cultural heritage” (18 January 2011) and in London “Monitoring pollution damage to cultural heritage” (30 June 2011).
The final version of the Guidelines was conceived as a booklet available on the TeACH project web-site. This version was shared with stakeholders at the final International workshop held in Padova “Technologies and tools for monitoring air pollution impact on cultural heritage - Final results from the TeACH-project” (24 February 2012).
The final version of the Guidelines was designed in such a way that they guide the user through a set of decision steps, leading to a strategy for evaluation, monitoring and mitigation of pollution-related damage to heritage.
After a brief instruction for their use, the Guidelines include 4 sections (Figure 8, see attached PDF) devoted to the main phases of the decision making process (evaluation, monitoring, mitigation, future pollution) providing useful knowledge to support decision steps aimed at implementing a CH preventive conservation strategy.
A specific section is added in attachment to illustrate the 6 case studies investigated in the project.
The main project results are described both in special sections and in short articles focusing on case studies.
The document integrates the contribution of all partners providing relevant knowledge derived from the project.
A wide-spread dissemination of TeACH-project results has been addressed and public dissemination of scientific and technological results has also been achieved all along the project execution.
All dissemination tools (website, newsletters, logo (Figure 9, see attached PDF), brochure, factsheet, video, etc.) have been set up to enhance the public interest and sensitivity concerning the main theme of TeACH project. The dissemination actions developed have been trade show exhibitions, conferences and workshops, TeACH-project workshops and experimental site visits, scientific paper and technical articles, interviews and Guidelines.
In particular, the total number of public dissemination events (including workshops and conferences, TeACH-project workshops, trade show exhibitions, visits) amounted to 40 since the beginning of the project, of which 11 trade shows. The number of technical articles published amounted to 18.
To ensure the future dissemination and exploitation of the project results, appropriated cost studies and market analyses have been made. In particular, the economic impact that the tools and technologies developed in TeACH project will have in the Cultural Heritage conservation and management market has been studied.
One of the main innovative aspects of the TeACH project is the completely novel approach of integrating existing tools and technologies for the air pollution monitoring with new ones, in order to improve the actual conservation techniques and approaches for Cultural Heritage buildings.
Thus, the study of economic impact investigated first the cost of each of the building elements composing the Toolkit. The installation, general and management costs have then been added. Starting from this cost base, further cost studies have been made.
On the basis of possible scenarios, a cost analysis has been done, taking into account the different variables influencing the final cost of installing the Toolkit in different cases all around EU27.
In addition to these studies, a cost/benefit evaluation of the Toolkit application in Cultural Heritage buildings all around Europe has been made together with an analysis of the existing market, in order to assess the application potential of the developed toolkit.
A study on the impact that TeACH project has on the European SMEs, especially those related to Cultural Heritage conservation and maintenance, has completed the economic evaluation.
Finally an analysis on how TeACH project may contribute to EU Policies was made.
The Exploitation plan of the TeACH project is the main output of the exploitation activities performed within the TeACH project. It is a document that mainly describes the strategies defined within TeACH to manage and protect the knowledge generated within the project and to exploit the project results. Based on the Consortium Agreement, a “project results table” has been prepared where the ownership of each of the results is defined and its type of protection/exploitation with regard to the TeACH partners who do not own these results. The activities performed within the TeACH project have led to 20 different project results. The Exploitation plan also defines the main fields to exploit the project results :
? knowledge transfer and training;
? technical assistance, advice and predictive maintenance plans;
? commercialization and use of monitoring instruments.
Finally, the plan includes the individual exploitation plan of each project partner. These individual exploitation plans have raised the expectation that the exploitation potential of the TeACH project will reach many SMEs thanks to the planned future dissemination and service activities.
The achievements obtained are of general interest for the assessment of the future effect of the environmental conditions in immovable and movable cultural heritage. The work carried out in the whole period can be considered a good implementation of the development of know-how. For a better future understanding of the evolution of the environment the new tools are very important to follow, understand and manage the mitigation of the attack of the changing environment on cultural heritage. The results of the project research are extremely useful to provide strategies and policies for the regulation of aspects of air pollution and consequently for the sustainable conservation of Cultural Heritage.
Moreover, the research carried out in the framework of the project improved methods and devices to assess the damage due to changing pollution trends on movable and immovable assets, both indoors and outdoors.
In fact the work carried out highlighted the importance of thinking in terms of damage processes for selecting the climate and pollution parameters critical to the cultural heritage protection. The parameters and pollutants selected should be an indication for planning of measurement campaigns for prevention conservation depending on material and location of selected work of art.
The analysis of the existing technologies and devices in the market which are able to measure chemical, physical and biological parameters related to Cultural Heritage weathering can be useful as a data base to identify in future lacks and improvements to be done in already developed technologies and tools regarding monitoring of Cultural Heritage weathering.
Finally, the results obtained from the field tests present an important and valuable outcome of the project. They introduce new information not only about the status of the air quality in different cities in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin but also about changes in the stone surface composition and colour, being an effect of the air pollution.
The results and conclusions of the experimental work where shared and will be passed in the next years on to other scientists, students, end users and stakeholders at various levels through popular and scientific publications, presentations at conferences and workshops, personal approaches to key heritage organisations and teaching, particularly at the Master and PhD level. Informing relevant authorities about the most important air pollution factors affecting the deterioration of buildings hopefully will result in providing adequate policy measures enabling better protection of Cultural Heritage. It is also expected to increase the awareness about environmental monitoring, standards and measures in the general conservation community.
Other benefits may be acquired by applying the methodology, developed in the TeACH project, in the context of air pollution monitoring for preventive conservation of other Cultural Heritage buildings. The methodology is based on the use of selected measurement methods, and afterwards on a detailed analysis of the results and their consistent interpretation in terms of protection of stone-built monuments. Using such methodology would allow an assessment of atmospheric pollution and an identification of the main factors in the degradation of Cultural Heritage.
Moreover, the Kit construction and functioning description are the basis for further development of the instrument and its future release on the market.
In fact the kit could be a useful tool for end users that need this additional control over the building: provides in every moment data from the sensors installed, making possible to check if the level of the measurements could be a problem or a risk for the building conservation. The system also allows installing more sensors in every moment without modifying the structure. The sensors are easy to install, not aggressive with delicate surfaces and easy to hide (we think that aesthetics are important in cultural heritage buildings), and it is possible to modify the behavior of the sensors, increasing or decreasing the sample period as the client demand.
Due to the central storage of the information, it is possible to use it in later studies or calculations about the relationship between measurement levels and material degradation.
Moreover, the current prototypes of the Kit will be kept in operation in Cologne and Florence as long as the permission will be granted by the personnel responsible for each site. As the next step, it is planned to develop the Kit to the next generation, taking into account all the experience gained during the field tests, suggestions and feedback of the experts and inputs from the project partners. The on-going collaboration and research with ISAC-CNR, next to the TeACH reports and monitoring in Cologne and Florence, will form the basis of the marketing material necessary for the commercialization of the Kit. The benefits of the upgraded version of the Kit could be presented to the potential clients in a new pilot project, concluded with an illustrated report, added later to the marketing mix.
The remote monitoring system could be a very useful and versatile tool for the conservators and people involved in the maintenance of Cultural Heritage buildings: it provides data in a continuous mode from the installed sensors, making possible to check temperature, relative humidity, light or other kind of parameters selected in the established measurement points. Installing more sensors can be done in every moment without modifying the system, to complete and increase the value of stored information. The sensors are easy to install and to hide so that the aesthetics of the buildings are not changed. It is also possible to modify their settings, increasing or decreasing the sampling period at the client’s request, maximising effectiveness of the monitoring. Thanks to the central storage of information, it is possible to use the data in later studies concerning the relationship between measurement levels and material degradation. In this way, a historical repository of information since the start of monitoring can be created, serving for a better control over the building.
Regarding the work developed in the indoor environment the studies performed with spectrophotometric measurement of dust deposition on a glass substrate have also the potential to become a quick and simple method to measure dust deposition together with the use of other dosimeters, e.g. the EWO dosimeter, which measures pollution effects.
Moreover, the improved understanding of the response of the EWO dosimeter to the environment as compared to the response of metal coupons has improved the knowledge to choose the best dosimeters to use for practical preventive conservation purposes and the interpretation of results obtained by the dosimeters in terms of risk levels for different cultural heritage materials.
The study performed to assess also the susceptibility of organic materials outdoors and indoors to multiple pollutants could be useful and interesting for a number of stakeholders that this research will have an impact on:
- Future research will be influenced because the new data challenges the accepted understanding of how organic materials interact with pollutants in real environments. The new dose-response functions will enable researchers to explore scenarios of environmental effect on materials.
- Heritage end-users will be able to take the appropriate measures to protect buildings using protective coatings. In indoor environments, it has become clear that many materials, particularly unsaturated organic materials, may be sensitive to NOx as a significant source of yellowing.
- Enterprises will be able to use the knowledge to optimize building material treatments and indoor air pollution removal devices and filtration plants. Additionally, the developed dose response function will be useful in development of environmental management and monitoring.
- Educational institutions will be able to use the knowledge in education in conservation, materials, environment, and more broadly, heritage science
- Policy makers will be able to take the knowledge to demonstrate that even after the environmental regulations have been shown to have a beneficial effect on pollution in the last three decades, traffic generated pollutants still represent a significant risk to long-term preservation of cultural heritage.
Finally the defined strategy for the diagnosis of indoor environments for cultural heritage will help to improve the planning and implantation of campaigns to assess the preventive conservation conditions for indoor cultural heritage, by giving clear guidance to the steps that should be taken. The strategy gives examples of the activities that must be carried out to implement the steps of: 1. Evaluation of the location, 2. Screening and pre-Evaluation, 3. Measurements and 4. Diagnosis.
Finally, the Dissemination activities carried out during the project had a relevant impact and reached a very wide and varied audience including conservator, conservation scientist and heritage managers. The total number of public events has been 40, from 2009 to 2012, including the events planned after the end of the project. In particular, the project has been presented at 11 trade shows exhibitions and 29 conferences and workshops including 3 TeACH-project workshops.
Even if it is difficult to state exactly the number of stakeholder effectively reached, the level of attendance of public events has been approximately estimated in about 450 for trade show exhibitions and about 619 for conferences and workshops. The level of accesses of the web site has grown from year to year, until reaching the number of about 53.934 visitors.
The publishing of the video on the web site will be an easy and attractive mean to disseminate the project results also in the future.
The Guidelines delivered at the end the project and published on the project web-site will be available in the next years (planned at least 10 years) for the future dissemination of the final results of the project within the community of conservator, conservation scientist and heritage manager.
For the one side, the Potential Economic Impact that the Toolkit production will have in the SME`s involved in its production and distribution has been deeply described before.
On the other side, although three lines of thrust have been recommended (from whom the results and consequent impact to companies and the society would greatly improve), two clear uses, or social impacts, have been identified for now:
- The first one is that the obtained knowledge application leads to decrease the overall cleaning costs of Cultural Heritage buildings all over Europe, by using a planned and organized predictive maintenance approach instead of a breakdown maintenance approach.
- The second is to provide arguments to the politicians, or CH building promoters, to take relevant measures at urban scale (sometimes unpopular measures). The project has confirmed and provided scientific data on pollution sources and the subsequent damage processes in the buildings. The developed Toolkit has to be used to provide additional scientific data to the politicians and urbanistic responsible to manage and protect Cultural Heritage buildings.
List of Websites:
Public website address:
Relevant contact details (COORDINATOR):
Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Italy
Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova, Italy
Adriana Bernardi / +39 049 8295906 / +39 049 8295949