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Analysis, Design, And Manufacturing using Microstructures

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - ADAM^2 (Analysis, Design, And Manufacturing using Microstructures)

Okres sprawozdawczy: 2021-01-01 do 2022-06-30

The evolution of new manufacturing technologies such as multi-material 3D printers gives rise to new type of objects that may consist of considerably less, yet heterogeneous, material, consequently being porous, lighter and cheaper, while having the very same functionality as the original object when manufactured from one single solid material. We aim at a unified manufacturing pipeline that will focus on all stages involving Analysis, Design, And Manufacturing using Microstructures (ADAM^2). That is, we look at volumetric microstructural paving of free-form objects, followed by structural analysis and shape optimization and highly accurate manufacturing, both additive and subtractive, finalized by inspection and industrial validation work package.
In WP1, we designed a computational framework for microstructural representation of curved (aka freeform) geometries based on volumetric representations (V-Rep) that are compatible with the state-of-the-art boundary representation (B-rep). In particular, we investigated a specific truss lattice construction arising from spherical packing, we analyzed microtiling of trimmed trivariates, explored geometrical strategies to generate irregular auxetic structures and/or looked at efficient computation of Hausdorff distance between two free-form objects.

In WP2, we dealt with structural analysis of a microstructured pattern using an iso-geometric framework using the input of WP1. In particular, we modeled microstructures behavior under a uniform surface load that generates the bending of the overall structure. We studied shape optimization of the internal microstructure by considering various (basis) microtiles and used thickness distribution for their optimization.

In WP3, we considered problems of highly accurate surface finish using 5-axis CNC machining. In particular, we considered higher order contact between a conical milling tool and a free-form surface, and for special target geometries, such as spiral bevel gears and/or screw rotors, we considered milling with two sides of the milling tool (aka double-flank milling) using a specifically designed custom-shaped tool.

Overall, we submitted 12 conference and/or journal papers, from which, up to date, 7 are accepted/published and remaining ones are under review or conditionally accepted. We also published an article in a science-popularizing journal Research OUTREACH, and submitted one provisional patent application.
We filed a provisional patent application on a specific microstructural construction: Elber et al. Systems and methods for generation of a truss, US provisional patent application no. 63/021, 163, May 2020, see Section 1.2.1.

Our preliminary results were applied to shoe sole design with the aim of a user-specific construction of shoe soles. This effort is a result of a shared effort in WP1 and WP2 where the microstructural tiling in non-congruent and optimized in a way that comforts the specific application, e.g. the shoe sole is more flexible in the toes’ part while more rigid close to the heel. The commercialization of this research will be further pursued in the coming years.

We proposed a new 5-axis flank CNC machining methodology, called double-flank milling, where not only the milling paths, but also the shape of the cutting tool are unknowns, see Section 1.2.3. This methodology is possible only for a very specific class of geometries, however, we have shown that for spiral bevel gears or screw rotors, we are able to approximate the workpiece by a single sweep of a properly designed tool within fine machining errors. The results are mainly in the modeling stage, but physical validation with metal tools will follow in the coming year. If successful, we aim at patenting/commercialization of this manufacturing methodology.
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