Large-scale demonstration(s) of cooperative ITS An integral part of this challenge is the demonstration of functioning partnerships of multiple stakeholders, namely private (including telecom, infrastructure and transport service operators and service providers, and Original Equipment Manufacturers), public authorities, emergency services, and other stakeholder groups and users, including a proof of actual commitment from the test sites. It should also be supported by thorough post-demonstration impact and cost-benefit assessment and evaluation of C-ITS concepts and technologies, including implementation issues. This will also offer an opportunity for stakeholders and partners to address issues and identify relevant technologies, including European GNSS, and processes to develop operational systems to be kept in place beyond the life of the pilot and lead towards automated transport. In order to meet this challenge, proposals should address several of the following aspects:―Enable services based on appropriate access and sharing of data leveraging in-vehicle resources and 2-way V2V, V2I, I2I and vulnerable road users connectivity in complex urban environments.―Enable interoperability across systems including testing and validating standards.―Demonstrating and validating cross-modal integration (e.g. including crossing) and potential for cross-border inter-operability. Interconnected and independent systems should be developed taking account of existing European and international standards and platforms.Participation of SMEs with proven experience in these areas is encouraged.Proposals should foresee twinning with entities participating in projects funded by US, to exchange knowledge and experience and exploit synergies, particularly for the development of validation methodologies.The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of between EUR 11 to 13 million each would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. Despite a number of ITS developments in recent years, several initiatives were undertaken in very specific environments, on an ad-hoc, isolated local or national basis, focusing mostly within a particular transport mode (e.g. Road). On top of this, the cooperative dimension of ITS and the applicability in different settings (e.g. urban, highway, long-distance, etc.) has so far not been sufficiently addressed. The time has come to bring this all together, leverage the achievements of past and current pilots and perform large-scale, real-life demonstrations in a specific (for example highly dense population) or combinations of environments that would not only showcase the current status of development and the large potential of C-ITS, but also reveal key areas for future research, innovation and deployment-related issues. A challenge towards full deployment of C-ITS remains the lack of a detailed testing methodology to validate developments of cooperative services and architectures. Actions are expected to lead to:―Improved level of performance for the entire transport system, including more efficient traffic management and safety improvements to enable a more sustainable transport system and foster overall socio-economic development.―Fully integrated C-ITS concepts in practical, real-life, complex environments being tested and demonstrated.―Greater collaboration (and partnerships) between multiple stakeholders to deploy applications and facilitate the interoperable interactions across all elements of the transport system, including the use of data from multiple sources (e.g. vehicle, mobile device and infrastructure).―A comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of the pilot that demonstrates the value added and economic viability of C-ITS services and solutions for users and other stakeholders.―Validated results and proven impact on user acceptance, safety, resilience and security with respect to transport demand and the environment.