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Food science, technology and engineering - European Joint Doctorate training towards knowledge, skills and mobility

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - EJDFoodSci (Food science, technology and engineering - European Joint Doctorate training towardsknowledge, skills and mobility)

Okres sprawozdawczy: 2018-09-01 do 2020-08-31

The objective of the project was to train 8 early stage researches (ESR) in an innovative international PhD program. Training objectives have been achieved by participation in:
-specialized courses,
-an international team, using facilities of multi-institutional consortium;
-academic and industrial internships.

In malting and brewing industry lots of heat and energy is used. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the possibilities to use innovative raw materials and introduce innovations in malting and brewing process - to reduce the CO2 fingerprint of the brewing technology. Another emerging issue is the flavor stability of foods and drinks, especially beer. The scientific aim of the project was to obtain new knowledge about the formation of staling compounds in beer, depending on the production process parameters. Reducing heat inputs during malting and brewing can reduce the overall production cost and CO2 emissions by decreased energy use. Additionally, reducing the oxygen and heat impact during malting and brewing can result in an increased quality of products by reducing oxidation reactions and negative reactions due to heat load. 

By developing an international PhD school in Food Science, six European universities were brought in close cooperation, overcoming the formal and legal obstacles to issue a joint/double PhD degree. This forms a completely new approach that the society can benefit from by creating a new way of providing PhD degree education. In this new network, PhD students can benefit from the cooperation between universities to perform better and more advanced research - cooperation instead of competition, is the key to better and more competitive European research.

Scientific goals were:
- introducing innovative raw materials (abundant in the parts of the world where barley is less abundant),
- reducing the energy uptake, thus reducing the CO2 emissions,
- reducing heat load on the malts and oxygen impact,
to obtain a better quality malt, improved flavour stability of beers, and a more environmental friendly technology. The brewers, consumers, and general society may benefit from the above innovations.

The objective of this project was to create an international, multi-university PhD school in food science (brewing and malting). Research aimed at reduction of the environmental impacts of malt and beer production by reducing energy inputs. It also seeks to improve the flavour quality and stability of beers through the application of state of the art, interdisciplinary scientific knowledge to the novel malting and brewing production processes we propose to develop.
All ESRs participated in 200h of high quality training offered by international consortium.
Trainings took place at the following institutions:
1. University of Agriculture in Krakow, POL
2. Versuchs und Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin, GER
3. Technische Universität Berlin, GER
4. University of Copenhagen, DEN
5. University of Ghent, BE
6. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, BE
7. University of Nottingham, UK
4 non-academic partners: Carlsberg, Boortmalt, VLB Berlin and FlavorActiv.

The project had a very good coverage in the press and social media. It has also been promoted on many occasions by the project coordinator (presentations during seminars, trainings, etc.). The facebook profile has over 2000 followers and the twitter account nearly 100. The PhD students took part in many international conferences: 13th trends in brewing conference, April 2018 (6 presentations), School Of Biosciences And School Of Veterinary Medicine Postgraduate Symposium, University Of Nottingham, April 2018 (1 presentation), 19th School Of Fermentation Technology 2018 (sft), May 2018 (7 presentations, 2 chapters in book, 3 posters), American Society Of Brewing Chemists and Master Brewers 'Brewing Summit' conference, August 2018 (1 poster)

Several cereals, pseudocereals and legumes have been theoretically tested on their suitability for research. As most of these grains have been investigated before, it was stated that trials on lentils would be done in the means of malting and brewing. The malting process of lentils was stated by several trials, followed by small scale mashing trials. An addition of technical enzymes was stated for the use of 100 % lentil malt. Nevertheless, results were sufficient and further research was done on the topic. Lentil malt was then used as a 10 and 20% adjunct to barley malt without technical enzymes.

The research has focussed on evaluating the effects of malt roasting on the metal-binding capacity of malts with an emphasis on the oxidative stability of wort and beer. Spent grains’ capacity to bind iron and copper during mashing were evaluated. Sweet worts made from malts with different degrees of roasting were screened and the respective oxidative stabilities were sweet worts made from malts with different degrees of roasting and respective oxidative stabilities were determined.

Fundamental procedures for the future work and experiments with green malt were developed. The developed procedure to separate the germinated malt into husk/rootlet and endosperm fraction, with only the endosperm-rich fraction being used for conventional mashing represents an innovative solution to produce wort from unkilned malt. Through optimization of the separation process, hot water extract values in the region of 71% d.b. were achieved. Lipoxygenase activity and nonenal potential were measured following treatment under varying conditions of pH, temperature and with/without oxygen. The impacts of these treatments on key diastatic enzymes was likewise measured.
Improvement of flavour stability of beer

Investigation on the time to kill the embryo in combination with faster drying was not successful at the lab-scale. The main focus of the research is to reduce the heat load during kilning. In order to evaluate the influence of malt on beer flavour stability, the method for determination of aldehydes (beer staling markers) in barley and different samples from malting is required. The research was performed focused on the method applied for quantitative determination of aldehydes, based on Head-Space Solid Phase Mass Extraction Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) with on-fiber derivatization of carbonyl compounds.

Metal ions in brewing
A collaboration with the department of chemistry at Univ. Copenhagen is established in order to investigate the actual species of copper and iron in sweet wort. The first step will be determining the capacity of sweet worts to bind copper(II). A standard method will be established, which can be used throughout the brewing process. Parts of this follow-up will be performed at UA Krakow.

Green malt
Monitoring and further investigation into the scalability of the developed procedures as well as the biochemical differences of germinated and kilned malt will be analyzed.

Optimization of fermentation processes
The analytical method based on liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for targeted yeast proteomics is currently being developed, optimized and validated. In this context, a literature search and selection of biomarker proteins was performed to be used on our LC-ESI-MS research work. The sample preparation and LC-ESI-MS work will be performed in collaboration L-ProBE, LM-UGent, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University. 
The ESRs at the KU Leuven brewery
ESRs during the course of "Public presentations"
Logo of the EJDFoodSci project
The ESRs during the training at VLB Berlin
EJDFoodSci is show during variuos events for the brewing sector