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Periodic Reporting for period 2 - GreenCharge (GreenCharge)

Okres sprawozdawczy: 2020-03-01 do 2022-02-28

GreenCharge has taken us a few important steps closer to achieving one of the dreams of modern cities: a zero emission transport system based on electric vehicles running on green energy, with traffic jams and parking problems becoming things of the past. The project had addressed three main objectives, expressed as simple "slogans":

This means giving individuals and transport operators access to charged vehicles at the time that they want to travel. But that is not the same as charging whenever you want. The project has developed and tested smart systems that avoid charging at peak times, but still ensure that charging is complete when the vehicle is needed.

The use of local renewable energy sources can be a supplement to the grid, increase the share of green energy, and lower the peaks. The project has developed smart and green energy management software to implement "Energy Smart Neighbourhoods" that balance energy between sources and consumers of power (e.g. households, heating, vehicle charging). We predict future energy demands, local production and local energy storage capacities in order to optimize usage and sharing. Electric cars that are connected but not planned to be used for a while provide flexibility that is exploiting in the optimisation, and charging can be shifted to periods with low energy demands.

Whatever smart solutions are, they must be economically viable. Many actors are involved in the provision of smart charging management. The project has developed business models that facilitate cooperation between actors and encourage the sharing of energy resources and the sharing of electric vehicles.

The project has set up demonstrators in three pilot cities: Oslo (Norway), Bremen (Germany) and Barcelona (Spain). The demonstrators developed for cities with different mobility cultures are complementary. Together, they have experimented with smart and green energy management utilising local Renewable Energy Sources, flexible sharing of charging infrastructure, and sharing of various kinds of EVs. While the lessons learnt from the implementation of demonstrators serve developers of future charging systems, the evaluation data collected serve policymakers and urban planners.

GreenCharge has made a small step towards achieving critical European climate goals. European cities share common needs including the needs to enhance air quality, to reduce emission of greenhouse gases, to solve traffic congestion and parking problems, and to provide efficient transport services. The European goal of 100 Climate-neutral Cities by 2030 require drastic changes in transport behaviours and energy production and consumption. The European Green Deal guides a transformational change, including actions in the areas of transport, energy and behaviour changes to which GreenCharge has contributed to.
The GreenCharge pilots confirmed that smart and green energy management in combination with charging contribute to a more optimal utilisation of the available energy and lower the peaks in the grid as well as a higher degree of self-sufficiency and a greener energy mix. In the Oslo pilot, energy costs were reduced by 10% and the use of stationary batteries has the potential to increase self-consumption from 50% to 100%. In the Bremen pilot, the shift from fuel cars to electric cars led to a CO2 reduction of 75%. Although the GreenCharge pilots suffer from the pandemic situation, the sharing of eScooters in Barcelona involving battery switch was highly successful due to a high demand of scooters for food deliveries.

The realisation of the GreenCharge concept requires the integration of systems from the transport, building and energy sectors. This integration was found to be complex, in part due to the lack of standardisation. The GreenCharge Reference Architecture provides a full-fledged specification of the ecosystem for smart and green charging and acts as a blueprint guiding the creation of individual system realisations.

GreenCharge proposes viable business and price models rewarding charging behaviours that contribute to peak reductions. These models target all actors involved in the transition to zero emission mobility, e.g. drivers and fleet operators, charging service providers and smart grid providers. The models, inspired by ideas from the sharing economy, show how to use and share the additional capacity of private renewable energy sources and private charging facilities, not only economically, but also socially and environmentally.

The GreenCharge Evaluation Framework extends the CIVITAS Evaluation Framework with a set of eMobility measures and Key Performance Indicators for evaluating their impact. GreenCharge has developed a hybrid evaluation approach that combine evaluations through demonstrators and simulations. The simulations extend the demonstrators with more complex settings extensions, such as scaling up.

GreenCharge provides recommendations and guidelines for integration of eMobility into Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs). These include best practice examples as inspiration for city planners and policy makers as well as recommendations for structuring multi-stakeholder investment in eMobility from a business model perspective. GreenCharge has organised a series of workshops with “Uptake Cities” to obtain feedback and spread experience more widely.

The project co-organized the “Informed Cities Forum” together the H2020 project OpenHeritage. Results were presented and challenges discussed. Sessions can be viewed on youtube: .

The open data from demonstrators and open deliverables are available from GreenCharge community on Zenodo: .

Detailed exploitation plans were developed for the results found most advanced and relevant for the market. The EV Fleet and Charge Management Prototype, the KPI Calculator and Visualiser and the smart Energy Management module will be exploited commercially. The Simulator Tool is available as open source via Github: . The Reference Architecture and Evaluation Framework are available on Zenodo and promoted via CIVITAS.
The question of “Where the energy comes from?” often remains in the shadow of that of an available charging infrastructure. The smart and green energy management approach in GreenCharge is mostly innovative supporting optimal use of green energy.

Other innovative results are
- The hybrid simulation approach that supports simulation of complex cases of smart energy neighbourhoods.
- The multi-stakeholder business models supporting rewarding green charging behaviours and sharing capacity.
- The GreenCharge Reference Architecture guiding the complex integration of systems from the transport, building and energy sectors.

The GreenCharge demonstrators have proved that it is possible to increase consumption of locally produced renewable energy and reduce CO2 emissions. The long-term impact of GreenCharge will be to facilitate a substantial shift to use of e-mobility in a way that maximises use of green energy. That will ultimately lead to larger reductions in CO2 emissions.
Barcelona pilot: e-bike sharing at train station
Green Charge Demo Card: Charging in an Energy Smart Neighbourhood
Bremen pilot: Putting cards on the table in the "Innovation Game"
Bremen pilot: Local stakeholders playing the "Innovation Game" to develop business models
GreenCharge explained at the 9th Informed Cities Forum
Oslo pilot official opening: Governing Mayor and Residents Association President
Oslo pilot: Installing solar panels on the roof
Barcelona pilot: e-scooter and battery charging station
Bremen pilot site - e-car sharing station in new housing development